Boix-Miller-Rosato Dichotomous Coding of Democracy, 1800-2020

Data source: Carles Boix, Michael K. Miller and Sebastian Rosato

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This data set provides a dichotomous coding of democracy from 1800 until 2020; however, QoG data contains information from 1946 onwards. Authors define a country as democratic if it satisfies conditions for both contestation and participation. Specifically, democracies feature political leaders chosen through free and fair elections and satisfy a threshold value of suffrage.

Last updated by source: 2022-01-03

Dataset type: Time-Series
Dataset level: Country


When using this dataset, please cite as:

Variables in this dataset:

   Dichotomous democracy measure
QoG Code: bmr_dem

Dichotomous democracy measure.

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   Number of previous democratic breakdowns
QoG Code: bmr_dembr

Previous number of democratic breakdowns.

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   Consecutive years of current regime type
QoG Code: bmr_demdur

Consecutive years of current regime type.

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   Democracy measure, requiring min. 50% of adult women have the right to vote
QoG Code: bmr_demfsuf

This adjusts democracy by also requiring that at least half of the adult women have the right to vote.

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   Dichotomous democracy measure (incl. missing for some countries)
QoG Code: bmr_demmis

This is the same measure as democracy (bmr_dem), except it records an NA for countries occupied during an international war (e.g., the Netherlands 1940-44) or experiencing state collapse during a civil war (e.g., Lebanon 1976-89). The democracy variable instead fills in these years as continuations of the same regime type.

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   Democratic transition
QoG Code: bmr_demtran

(-1) Democratic breakdown (0) No change (1) Democratic transition

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