Environment

This category includes geographical characteristics such as the geographical region, land area etc. as well as indicators describing the state of the environment, ecosystems and materials, the impact of human beings on the environment, and environmental protection.


Variables under this category

Variable: Accountable Climate Target
QoG code: act_act

About the variable: A binary measure of whether a country has an accountable climate target (ACT) or not. An ACT is a precise emissions target for which other countries can hold a country - and only that country - accountable. A country has an ACT if it fulfills two criteria: 1) the country's nationally determined contribution (NDC) must state an economy-wide target in reference to emission levels from a past year, a target compared to the business-as-usual scenario, or a target in terms of the CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP); 2) the commitment must not be conditional upon receiving financial support from third parties. The measure is for 2015, at the time of the first NDCs.

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Variable: Renewable internal freshwater resources (bln m3)
QoG code: as_rifr

About the variable: Renewable water resources (internal and external) include average annual flow of rivers and recharge of aquifers generated from endogenous precipitation and those water resources that are not generated in the country, such as inflows from upstream countries (groundwater and surface water), and part of the water of border lakes and/or rivers. Measured in billion cubic meters (bln m3).

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Variable: Water stress: freshwater withdrawal, proportion of available freshwater
QoG code: as_ws

About the variable: The level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources is the ratio between total freshwater withdrawn by all major sectors and total renewable freshwater resources, after taking into account environmental flow requirements. Main sectors include agriculture, forestry and fishing, manufacturing, electricity industry, and services. This indicator is also known as water withdrawal intensity.

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Variable: Threatened Species: Amphibians
QoG code: bi_amphibians

About the variable: Threatened Species: Amphibians (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Birds
QoG code: bi_birds

About the variable: Threatened Species: Birds (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Chromists
QoG code: bi_chromists

About the variable: Threatened Species: Chromists (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Fishes
QoG code: bi_fishes

About the variable: Threatened Species: Fishes (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: varlab Threatened Species: Fungi
QoG code: bi_fungi

About the variable: Threatened Species: Fungi (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Mammals
QoG code: bi_mammals

About the variable: Threatened Species: Mammals (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Molluscs
QoG code: bi_molluscs

About the variable: Threatened Species: Molluscs (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Other Inverts
QoG code: bi_othinverts

About the variable: Threatened Species: Other Inverts (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Plants
QoG code: bi_plants

About the variable: Threatened Species: Plants (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Reptiles
QoG code: bi_reptiles

About the variable: Threatened Species: Reptiles (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Threatened Species: Total
QoG code: bi_total

About the variable: Threatened Species: Total (Total number of species reported as endangered per country)

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Variable: Environmental concerns taken into account
QoG code: bti_envc

About the variable: Expert answer to the question "To what extent are environmental concerns effectively taken into account?'' The variable ranges from 1 to 10, where 1 is "Environmental concerns receive no consideration and are entirely subordinated to growth efforts. There is no environmental regulation", 4 is "Environmental concerns receive only sporadic consideration and are often subordinated to growth efforts. Environmental regulation is weak and hardly enforced", 7 is "Environmental concerns are taken into account but are occasionally subordinated to growth efforts. Environmental regulation and incentives are in place, but their enforcement at times is deficient", and 10 is "Environmental concerns are effectively taken into account and are carefully balanced with growth efforts. Environmental regulation and incentives are in place and enforced".

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Variable: Sustainability
QoG code: bti_su

About the variable: Economic growth is balanced, environmentally sustainable and future-oriented. Including ``To what extent are environmental concerns effectively taken into account?'' and ``To what extent are there solid institutions for basic, secondary and tertiary education, as well as for research and development?''.

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Variable: Cooperation in International Climate Change Regime Index
QoG code: ccci_coop

About the variable: The index aggregates the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, Reporting, Finance, and Emission Indicators. All variables are summed and have equal weight except for the Emission Indicator which is given double weight. The index varies on a 0-6 scale.

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Variable: Emission Indicator
QoG code: ccci_em

About the variable: The indicator measures the status of CO2 emissions while accounting for differences in national population and different paths of economic development. Countries are assessed according to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), which indicates that the relationship between per capita CO2 emissions and per capita GDP is positive only up to a certain point of development, after which the relationship becomes negative. A +/- 50 percent interval is created for the EKC, and a trend is measured for each country from 1990 to 2002. If a country's trend is greater than the +50 percent band, the country scores 0. If a country's trend is less than the band, it scores 1.

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Variable: Finance Indicator
QoG code: ccci_fin

About the variable: The indicator measures how well a country has upheld its financial obligations to the core budget of the UNFCCC. Countries were evaluated according to their "Status of Contributions" reports from 1996 and 2005. A score of 1 is given if the country has paid all due payments up to the present year and at least 50 percent of the amount for the present year. The score decreases linearly to a score of 0 if the country has paid no contributions.

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Variable: Kyoto Protocol Indicator
QoG code: ccci_kyoto

About the variable: This two-part indicator equally weighs the willingness and promptness of a country in adopting the Kyoto Protocol. Willingness is scored as either 0.5 if a country adopted the Kyoto Protocol by the end of 2005 or 0 if it did not. Promptness is scored on a declining scale that starts at 0.5 and ends at 0. The highest score is given if a country adopted the Kyoto Protocol at its earliest possible ratification in April 1998. The lowest score is given if a country had not ratified the Kyoto Protocol by the end of 2005.

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Variable: Reporting Indicator
QoG code: ccci_rep

About the variable: This two-part indicator equally measures whether and how fast a country has submitted its latest National Communication (NC) on the state of its climate plan. The country is scored either 0.5 if it submitted the lastest required NC before the end of 2005 or 0 if it did not. The country is given an additional 0.5 if the report was submitted before the deadline. This score decreases until reaching 0 for a submission 6 or more months after the deadline for Annex I (AI) countries, and a submission 36 months or more after the deadline for Non-Annex I (NAI) countries.

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Variable: UNFCCC Indicator
QoG code: ccci_unfccc

About the variable: This two-part indicator equally weighs the willingness and promptness of a country in adopting the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Willingness is scored as either 0.5 if a country adopted the UNFCCC by the end of 2005 or 0 if it did not. Promptness is scored on a declining scale that starts at 0.5 and ends at 0. The highest score is given if the country adopted the UNFCCC at its earliest possible ratification date in July 1992. The lowest score is given if a country had not ratified the UNFCC at the time of the Kyoto Conference in December 1997.

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Variable: Annual average rainfall
QoG code: cckp_rain

About the variable: Annual average rainfall in millimeters.

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Variable: Annual average temperature
QoG code: cckp_temp

About the variable: Annual average temperature in Celsius.

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Variable: Climate change policy/executive provision in place
QoG code: ccl_exepp

About the variable: Number of climate change-related policies or other executive provisions (e.g., presidential decrees, executive orders, regulations, government policies, strategies, or plans), which were published or decreed by the government, president, or equivalent executive authority, in the recorded year.

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Variable: Climate change law in place
QoG code: ccl_leglp

About the variable: Number of climate change-related laws or legislative acts (e.g. acts, laws, decree-laws), which were passed by a parliament or equivalent legislative authority, in the recorded year.

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Variable: Climate change law or policy in place
QoG code: ccl_lpp

About the variable: Number of climate change-related laws (legislative acts) and policies (executive provisions) adopted per year.

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Variable: Climate change mitigation law or policy in place
QoG code: ccl_mitlpp

About the variable: Number of laws (legislative acts) or policies (executive provisions) related to climate change mitigation adopted per year. Mitigation laws and policies refer to a legislative or executive disposition focused on curbing a country's greenhouse gases emissions in one sector or more. Measures can be directly related to emissions reductions, such as laws establishing a national carbon budget or cap and trade system, or indirectly related, such as laws or policies establishing relevant institutions or providing additional funding for research and development into low carbon technologies. Laws and policies addressing forests and land use are included as long as they explicitly support climate change mitigation through activities that reduce emissions and increase carbon removals. General forest management and conservation laws are not included, even if they may have implicit consequences for climate change mitigation.

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Variable: Number of climate change policies/executive provisions
QoG code: ccl_nexep

About the variable: Cumulative sum of climate change-related policies or other executive provisions (e.g. presidential decrees, executive orders, regulations, government policies, strategies, or plans), which were published or decreed by the government, president, or equivalent executive authority.

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Variable: Number of climate change laws
QoG code: ccl_nlegl

About the variable: Cumulative sum of climate change-related laws or legislative acts (e.g. acts, laws, decree-laws), which were passed by a parliament or equivalent legislative authority.

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Variable: Number of climate change laws and policies
QoG code: ccl_nlp

About the variable: Cumulative sum of laws (legislative acts) and policies (executive provisions) related to climate change.

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Variable: Number of climate change mitigation laws and policies
QoG code: ccl_nmitlp

About the variable: Cumulative sum of laws (legislative acts) and policies (executive provisions) related to climate change mitigation. Mitigation laws and policies refer to a legislative or executive disposition focused on curbing a country's greenhouse gases emissions in one sector or more. Measures can be directly related to emissions reductions, such as laws establishing a national carbon budget or cap and trade system, or indirectly related, such as laws or policies establishing relevant institutions or providing additional funding for research and development into low carbon technologies. Laws and policies addressing forests and land use are included as long as they explicitly support climate change mitigation through activities that reduce emissions and increase carbon removals. General forest management and conservation laws are not included, even if they may have implicit consequences for climate change mitigation.

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Variable: BC emissions
QoG code: edgar_bc

About the variable: The total BC (black carbon, particulate matter) emissions, aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of black carbon per year.

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Variable: CH4 emissions
QoG code: edgar_ch4

About the variable: The total CH4 (methane) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of CH4 per year.

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Variable: CO emissions
QoG code: edgar_co

About the variable: The total CO (carbon monoxide) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Emissions from large-scale biomass burning with Savannah burning, forest fires, and sources and sinks from land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) are excluded. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of CO per year.

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Variable: CO2 emissions per GDP
QoG code: edgar_co2gdp

About the variable: The total CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions per country, divided by each country's respective GDP (gross domestic product). Units are tonnes of CO2 per thousand US dollars of GDP. Includes all fossil CO2 sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, non-metallic mineral processes (e.g., cement production), metal (ferrous and non-ferrous) production processes, urea production, agricultural liming, and solvents use. Large-scale biomass burning with Savannah burning, forest fires, and sources and sinks from land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) are excluded.

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Variable: CO2 emissions per capita
QoG code: edgar_co2pc

About the variable: The total CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions per country, divided by each country's respective population. Units are tonnes of CO2 per capita per year. Includes all fossil CO2 sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, non-metallic mineral processes (e.g., cement production), metal (ferrous and non-ferrous) production processes, urea production, agricultural liming, and solvents use. Large-scale biomass burning with Savannah burning, forest fires, and sources and sinks from land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) are excluded.

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Variable: CO2 emissions total
QoG code: edgar_co2t

About the variable: The total CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Includes all fossil CO2 sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, non-metallic mineral processes (e.g., cement production), metal (ferrous and non-ferrous) production processes, urea production, agricultural liming, and solvents use. Large-scale biomass burning with Savannah burning, forest fires, and sources and sinks from land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) are excluded. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of CO2 per year.

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Variable: N2O emissions
QoG code: edgar_n2o

About the variable: The total N2O (nitrous oxide) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of N2O per year.

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Variable: NH3 emissions
QoG code: edgar_nh3

About the variable: The total NH3 (ammonia) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of NH3 per year.

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Variable: NMVOC emissions
QoG code: edgar_nmvoc

About the variable: The total NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of NMVOC per year.

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Variable: NOx emissions
QoG code: edgar_nox

About the variable: The total NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of NOx per year.

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Variable: OC emissions
QoG code: edgar_oc

About the variable: The total OC (organic carbon, particulate matter) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of OC per year.

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Variable: PM10 emissions
QoG code: edgar_pm10

About the variable: The total PM10 (particulate matter, 10 micrometers or smaller) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of PM10 per year.

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Variable: PM2.5 emissions
QoG code: edgar_pm25

About the variable: The total PM2.5 (particulate matter, 2.5 micrometers or smaller) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of PM2.5 per year.

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Variable: SO2 emissions
QoG code: edgar_so2

About the variable: The total SO2 (sulfur dioxide) emissions aggregated across sectors per country. Units are kilotonnes (kt) of SO2 per year.

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Variable: Environmental Democracy Index
QoG code: edi_edi

About the variable: EDI measures to which degree countries have enacted legally binding rules that provide for environmental information collection and disclosure, public participation across a range of environmental decisions, and fair, affordable, and independent avenues for seeking justice and challenging decisions that impact the environment. It is an average of 3 pillars that measure: 1) the right to freely access information on environmental quality and problems (Access to information pillar); 2) the right to participate meaningfully in decision-making (Participation pillar); 3) the right to seek enforcement of environmental laws or compensation for harm (Justice pillar). The pillars are calculated by combining 75 legal indicators that are scored from 0 (worst) to 3 (best), producing an overall score that falls within this same range. The pillars are given equal weight when creating an average.

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Variable: Affordable access to relief and remedy (Guideline 20)
QoG code: edi_gaarr

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent states ensure that the access of members of the public concerned to review procedures relating to the environment is not prohibitively expensive and to which extent they consider the establishment of appropriate assistance mechanisms to remove or reduce financial and other barriers to access to justice. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (20.1) To what extent are there legal mechanisms in place to ensure that access to review procedures relating to the environment for members of the public concerned is not prohibitively expensive?; (20.2) To what extent does the law provide assistance mechanisms to reduce financial barriers to access to justice?; (20.3) To what extent does the law provide assistance mechanisms to reduce gender-related non-financial barriers to access to justice?; (20.4) To what extent does the law provide assistance mechanisms to reduce other non-financial and non-gender barriers to access to justice?; (P20.1) In the last 5 years, has a public interest case relating to the environment or natural resources been filed which was supported by government legal aid?; (P20.2) In the last 10 years, have there been cases relating to the environment or natural resources where the costs of proceedings was awarded against a public interest complainant/plaintiff/petitioner (c/p/p)?; (P20.3) In the last 5 years have there been cases related to the environment or natural resources where the costs of proceedings were awarded in favor of a public interest complainant/plaintiff/petitioner (c/p/p)?

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Variable: Alternative dispute resolution for environmental issues (Guideline 26)
QoG code: edi_gadrei

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states encourage the development and use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms where these are appropriate. In scoring this indicator, “alternate dispute resolution mechanisms” include mediation, conciliation, or arbitration adopted by institutions as a means of resolving environmental disputes. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (26.1) To what extent does the law provide for the possibility to use alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to address violations of the right of access to environmental information, public participation or cases of environmental harm?; (26.2) To what extent does the law provide incentives for the use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms where these are appropriate?; (P26.1) In the last 5 years, has a public interest case relating to the environment or natural resources been solved by an alternate conflict resolution method (such as mediation, arbitration and conciliation)?

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Variable: Awareness and education about remedies and relief (Guideline 23)
QoG code: edi_gaerr

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states provide adequate information to the public about the procedures operated by courts of law and other relevant bodies in relation to environmental issues. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (23.1) To what extent does the law require the State or State agencies or institutions to provide information to the public about court procedures relating to environmental issues?; (23.2) To what extent does the law require the State or State agencies or institutions to provide information to the public about review procedures relating to environmental issues provided by bodies other than courts of law?; (P23.1) Is there an easily understandable explanation of court procedures in the national language(s) on the website or office of the highest national court or the apex national environmental agency?

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Variable: Accessibility of information requests (Guideline 1)
QoG code: edi_gair

About the variable: The indicator measures the existence of a clear positive legal mandate that gives the public the right to access environmental information upon request. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (1.1) To what extent does the law mandate access to environmental information to be provided upon request?; (1.2) To what extent does the law provide for natural or legal persons' access to environmental information?; (1.3) To what extent does the law make access to environmental information affordable?; (1.4)To what extent does the law provide for timely access to environmental information?; (1.5) To what extent does the law include public authorities under access to environmental information provisions?; (1.6) To what extent does the law not require proof of legal or other interest for access to environmental information?

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Variable: Due account of public comments (Guideline 11)
QoG code: edi_gapc

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that due account is taken of the comments of the public in the decision-making process and that the decisions are made public. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (11.1) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making require the State or State agencies at the national level to take due account of the public's comments in decision-making relating to the environment?; (11.2) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making require that decisions relating to the environment are made public?; (P11.1) In the three most recent large-scale extractive or development projects, did the relevant agency respond to public comments on the environmental impact assessment and make the responses available to the public?

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Variable: Broad standing (Guideline 18)
QoG code: edi_gbs

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states provide broad interpretation of standing in proceedings concerned with environmental matters with a view to achieving effective access to justice. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (18.1) To what extent does the law recognize broad legal standing in proceedings concerned with environmental matters?; (P18.1) In the last 5 years, have NGOs been granted legal standing by national courts in public interest environmental cases?

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Variable: Effective enforcement (Guideline 22)
QoG code: edi_gee

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure the timely and effective enforcement of decisions in environmental matters taken by courts of law and by administrative and other relevant bodies. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (22.1) To what extent does the law provide for the effective enforcement of criminal court decisions relating to the environment?; (22.2) To what extent does the law require the enforcement of criminal court decisions relating to the environment to be timely?; (22.3) To what extent does the law provide for the effective enforcement of civil court decisions relating to the environment?; (22.4) To what extent does the law require the enforcement of civil court decisions relating to the environment to be timely?; (22.5) To what extent does the law provide for effective enforcement of decisions relating to the environment taken by administrative and other relevant bodies?; (22.6) To what extent does the law ensure the enforcement of administrative decisions relating to the environment will be timely?

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Variable: Environmental information in the public domain (Guideline 2)
QoG code: edi_gepd

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states provide environmental information in the public domain that include, among other things, information about environmental quality, environmental impacts on health and factors that influence them, in addition to information about legislation and policy, and advice about how to obtain information. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (2.1) To what extent does the law require information on environmental quality to be made proactively available to the public?; (2.2) To what extent does the law require environmental information on environmental factors that influence health be placed in the public domain?; (2.3) To what extent does the law require information on environmental laws and policy be placed in the public domain?; (2.4) To what extent does the law require publicly available information and advice on how to obtain environmental information?; (P2.1) Are real time air quality data for the capital city of your country made available online by the government?; (P2.2) In the last two years, has annual drinking water quality data for water services in your capital city been proactively provided to consumers either by mail (post) or online and do they meet the minimum standards established by the regulatory agency?

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Variable: Early public participation (Guideline 8)
QoG code: edi_gepp

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states states ensure opportunities for early and effective public participation in decision-making related to the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (8.1) To what extent does the law require the public concerned to have opportunities to participate in decision making related to the environment?; (8.2) To what extent does the law require public participation opportunities to be provided early in the decision-making process?; (8.3) To what extent does the law require that the public concerned be provided with information about its opportunities to participate early in the decision-making process?; (P8.1) Choose three recent controversial development projects (in terms of press coverage and potential cost and/or revenue of project) that were approved through an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process under national law. Were public notices given seeking comments on the EIA or its terms of reference?

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Variable: Early warning information (Guideline 6)
QoG code: edi_gewi

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that all information that would enable the public to take measures to prevent imminent threat of harm to human health or the environment is disseminated immediately. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to question on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (6.1) When there is an imminent threat of harm to human health or the environment, to what extent does the law obligate or mandate the government agencies to immediately disseminate information to the public that enables it to take preventive action?

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Variable: Fair, timely, and independent review (Guideline 19)
QoG code: edi_gftir

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states provide effective procedures for timely review by courts of law or other independent and impartial bodies, or administrative procedures, of issues relating to the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (19.1) To what extent does the law provide procedures for the review of issues relating to the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment by courts or other bodies, or administrative procedures?; (19.2) To what extent does the law require review procedures regarding the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment to be decided by impartial and independent courts or bodies?; (19.3) To what extent does the law require review procedures regarding the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment to be timely?; (19.4) To what extent does the law require review procedures regarding the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment to be fair and equitable?; (19.5) To what extent does the law require review procedures regarding the implementation and enforcement of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment to be open and transparent? (P19.1) In the last 5 years have there been sanctions or corrective actions imposed by a national court of law or other independent and impartial body, for violation of laws and decisions pertaining to the environment?

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Variable: Grounds for refusal (Guideline 3)
QoG code: edi_ggr

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states clearly define in their law the specific grounds on which a request for environmental information can be refused. The grounds for refusal are to be interpreted narrowly, taking into account the public interest served by disclosure. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (3.1) To what extent does the law clearly define specific grounds on which a request for environmental information can be refused?; (3.2) To what extent does the law require environmental information that is covered by a ground for refusal to be severed (separated) from the rest of the information before being released to the requester?; (3.3) To what extent does the law require the decision-maker to take into account the public interest served by disclosure when considering exemptions (grounds for refusal)?

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Variable: Information collection and management (Guideline 4)
QoG code: edi_gicm

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that their competent public authorities regularly collect and update relevant environmental information, including information on environmental performance and compliance by operators of activities potentially affecting the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (4.1) To what extent are competent public authorities mandated by law to regularly collect and update relevant environmental information?; (4.2) To what extent does the law mandate the public authorities to comprehensively monitor the environmental performance and compliance by operators of activities potentially affecting the environment, and to collect and update such information?; (4.3) To what extent is there a system established by the law ensuring adequate public information about proposed and existing activities that may significantly affect the environment?; (P4.1) Does a national agency in your country ensure that daily air emission and waste water discharges by large-scale industries at a facility level are proactively made publicly available either online, through a public register or at a library; if so, is that information comparable to a national standard?

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Variable: Informed participation (Guideline 10)
QoG code: edi_gip

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that all information relevant for decision-making related to the environment is made available, in an objective, understandable, timely, and effective manner, to the members of the public concerned. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (10.1) To what extent do the laws concerning: environmental impact assessments, pollution control permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, protected areas and terrestrial biodiversity, and environmental policy-making require all information relevant to decision-making processes relating to the environment to be made available to the public concerned, without the public having to make an official information request?; (10.2) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, protected areas and terrestrial biodiversity, and environmental policy-making require that proactively released information relevant to decision-making be understandable to the public concerned?; (10.3) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making require the information relevant to decision-making to be provided in a timely fashion to the public concerned?; (P10.1) Are the Environmental Impact Assessments for development projects accessible to the public online or at a national government agency?; (P10.2) Is information on wastewater discharge and air emission permit violations available to the public online or at a government agency?; (P10.3) Are extractive industry licenses/permits available to the public online or at a government agency?; (P10.4) During the past three years, in the process of granting forest use contracts, has the relevant agency made publicly available information related to such contracts?; (P10.5) Are the forest use contracts, once finalized, made available to the public online or at a government agency?

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Variable: Integrating public input for rule-making (Guideline 13)
QoG code: edi_gipirm

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states consider appropriate ways of ensuring, at an appropriate stage, public input into the preparation of legally binding rules that might have a significant effect on the environment and into the preparation of policies, plans and programmes relating to the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (13.1) To what extent does the law require opportunities for public input at an appropriate stage during preparation of legally binding rules (rule-making or preparation of subsidiary legislation, regulations, etc.) that might have a significant effect on the environment?; (13.2) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, protected areas and terrestrial biodiversity, and environmental policy-making require the State or state agencies to provide opportunities for public input at an appropriate stage of the preparation of policies?; (13.3) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, protected areas and terrestrial biodiversity, and environmental policy-making require there to be opportunities for public input at an appropriate stage of the preparation of plans relating to the environment?; (13.4) To what extent does the law require there to be opportunities for public input at an appropriate stage of the preparation of programs relating to the environment?

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Variable: Information request appeals (Guideline 15)
QoG code: edi_gira

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that any natural or legal person who considers that his or her request for environmental information has been unreasonably refused, in part or in full, inadequately answered or ignored, or in any other way not handled in accordance with applicable law, has access to a review procedure before a court of law or other independent and impartial body to challenge such a decision, act or omission by the public authority in question. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (15.1) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, protected areas and terrestrial biodiversity, and environmental policy-making provide for access to a review procedure in cases where environmental information request have been denied?; (15.2) To what extent does the law make the review available to all natural or legal persons?; (15.3) To what extent does the law provide access to a review procedure before a court of law or other independent and impartial body in cases when an environmental information request has been denied?; (P15.1) Is there a court, tribunal or other independent or impartial body at the national level with a physical office to receive and process public complaints about the refusal of environmental information?

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Variable: Public access to judicial and administrative decisions (Guideline 24)
QoG code: edi_gpajad

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that decisions relating to the environment taken by a court of law, other independent and impartial or administrative body, are publicly available, as appropriate and in accordance with national law. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (24.1) To what extent does the law require judicial decisions relating to the environment to be made publicly available?; (24.2) To what extent does the law require decisions relating to the environment taken by administrative bodies to be made publicly available?; (24.3) To what extent does the law require decisions relating to the environment taken by other independent and impartial bodies to be made publicly available?; (P24.1) Are the decisions of the last three environmental or natural resource cases decided by a national court, tribunal or other judicial body available to the public online or at the office of that court, tribunal or body?

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Variable: Prompt, effective remedies (Guideline 21)
QoG code: edi_gper

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states provide a framework for prompt, adequate and effective remedies in cases relating to the environment, such as interim and final injunctive relief. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (21.1) To what extent does the law require adequate and effective remedies in cases relating to the environment?; (21.2) To what extent does the law require remedies in cases relating to the environment to be provided promptly?; (21.3) To what extent is interim and/or final injunctive relief available under the law?; (21.4) To what extent is compensation available as a remedy under the law?; (21.5) To what extent is restitution available as a remedy under the law?; (21.6) To what extent is restoration of the environment available as a remedy under the law?; (P21.1) In the last 5 years, have there been injunctions/stay orders/interdicts issued by a court, tribunal or other judicial body in environmental or natural resource cases?

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Variable: Public participation appeals (Guideline 16)
QoG code: edi_gppa

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that the members of the public concerned have access to a court of law or other independent and impartial body to challenge the substantive and procedural legality of any decision, act or omission relating to public participation in decision-making in environmental matters. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (16.1) To what extent does the law entitle members of the public concerned to challenge the substantive legality of any decision, act or omission relating to decision-making in environmental matters which is subject to public participation?; (16.2) To what extent does the law entitle members of the public concerned to challenge the procedural legality of any decision, act or omission relating to decision-making in environmental matters subject to public participation?; (16.3) To what extent does the law require that a court of law or other independent and impartial body hear challenges to substantive and/or procedural legality?; (P16.1) In the last 5 years, have public interest environmental or natural resource cases been filed before a court, tribunal or other body? If court records are not public information, check media reports.

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Variable: Proactive public consultation (Guideline 9)
QoG code: edi_gppc

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states make efforts to seek proactively public participation in a transparent and consultative manner, including efforts to ensure that members of the public concerned are given an adequate opportunity to express their views. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (9.1) To what extent do the laws concerning environmental impact assessments, pollution control permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making obligate the State or state agencies at the national level to proactively seek public participation?; (9.2) To what extent do the laws concerning: environmental impact assessments, pollution control permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making obligate the State or State agencies at the national level to give members of the public concerned an adequate opportunity to express their views?

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Variable: Public participation review (Guideline 12)
QoG code: edi_gppr

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that when a review process is carried out where previously unconsidered environmentally significant issues or circumstances have arisen, the public should be able to participate in any such review process to the extent that circumstances permit. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to question on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (12.1) To what extent do the laws concerning: environmental impact assessments, pollution control standards and permits, forest concessions, extractive industries, biodiversity and terrestrial protected areas, and environmental policy-making require the State or state agencies to provide for a public review process for decisions relating to the environment if previously unconsidered environmental impacts become apparent?

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Variable: Right of public to challenge state or private actors (Guideline 17)
QoG code: edi_grpcspa

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states ensure that the members of the public concerned have access to a court of law or other independent and impartial body or administrative procedures to challenge any decision, act or omission by public authorities or private actors that affects the environment or allegedly violates the substantive or procedural legal norms of the State related to the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (17.1) To what extent does the law give rights to the public concerned to challenge any decision, act or omission by public authorities that allegedly violates the procedural legal norms of the state relating to the environment?; (17.2) To what extent does the law give rights to the public concerned to challenge any decision, act or omission by private actors that allegedly violates the substantive legal norms of the state relating to the environment?; (17.3) To what extent does the law give rights to the public concerned to challenge any decision, act or omission by private actors that allegedly violates the procedural legal norms of the State relating to the environment?; (17.4) To what extent does the law require the challenges referred to in indicators 1-3 to be heard by an independent and impartial body?; (P17.1) Have there been cases in the last 5 years when civil society filed a lawsuit against a polluter in a national court?; (P17.2) Have there been cases in the last 5 years when civil society filed a lawsuit in a national court challenging a government decision, policy, or rule affecting the environment?

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Variable: State of the environment report (Guideline 5)
QoG code: edi_gser

About the variable: The indicator measures to which extent the states periodically prepare and disseminate at reasonable intervals up-to-date information on the state of the environment, including information on its quality and on pressures on the environment. This indicator is an arithmetic average of expert answers to questions on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best): (5.1) To what extent does the law mandate the government to publish reports on the state of the environment (i.e. a State of the Environment report)?; (5.2) To what extent does the law require the publication of a State of the Environment report to be periodic at reasonable intervals?; (5.3) Does the law require the report to be comprehensive in the information that it provides?; (5.4) To what extent does the law require the report to contain up-to date information?; (P5.1) In the last 10 years has a national government agency regularly published State of the Environment Reports? (Regular is at fixed intervals of five years or less)

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Variable: Justice Pillar Score
QoG code: edi_jp

About the variable: The Justice Pillar Score combines guidelines "Information request appeals", "Public participation appeals", "Right of public to challenge state or private actors", "Broad standing", "Fair, timely, and independent review", "Affordable access to relief and remedy", "Prompt, effective remedies", "Effective enforcement", "Awareness and education about remedies and relief", "Public access to judicial and administrative decisions", and "Alternative dispute resolution for environmental issues", using an arithmetic average on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best).

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Variable: Access to Information Pillar Score
QoG code: edi_pati

About the variable: The Access to Information Pillar Score combines guidelines "Accessibility of information requests", "Environmental information in the public domain", "Ground for refusal", "Information collection and management", "State of the environment report", and "Early warning information", using an arithmetic average on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best).

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Variable: Participation Pillar Score
QoG code: edi_pp

About the variable: The Participation Pillar Score combines guidelines "Early public participation", "Proactive public consultation", "Informed participation", "Due account of public comments", "Public participation review", and "Integrating public input for rule-making", using an arithmetic average on a scale from 0 (worst) to 3 (best).

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Variable: Total Biocapacity (gha per capita)
QoG code: ef_bcpc

About the variable: Total biocapacity divided by the population size. Units are global hectares (gha) per capita.

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Variable: Total Biocapacity (total gha)
QoG code: ef_bct

About the variable: Biocapacity is the capacity of ecosystems to regenerate what people demand from those surfaces. It is an aggregate measure of the amount of area available, weighted by the productivity of that area. It represents the ability of a biosphere to produce crops, livestock (pasture), timber products (forest) and seafood as well as the biosphere's ability to uptake CO2 in forests. It also measures how much of this regenerative capacity is occupied by infrastructure (built-up land). In essense, it measures the ability of the available terrestrial and aquatic areas to provide ecological services. The units are global hectares.

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Variable: Built-up land footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_bul

About the variable: The built-up land footprint is calculated based on the area of land covered by human infrastructure: transportation, housing, and industrial structures. Built-up land may occupy what would previously have been cropland. Measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Built-up land biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_bul_bc

About the variable: Built-up land biocapacity measures how much of the regenerative capacity is occupied by infrastructure (built-up land). Regenerative capacity is an aggregate measure of the amount of area available, weighted by the productivity of that area. It represents the ability of a biosphere to produce crops, livestock (pasture), timber products (forest) and seafood as well as the biosphere's ability to uptake CO2 in forests. The measure of built-up land biocapacity is divided by the population size.

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Variable: Built-up land footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_bulp

About the variable: The country’s built-up area (roads, factories, cities), divided by the population size. The measurement units are global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Carbon footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_carb

About the variable: The carbon footprint represents the carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels in addition to the embodied carbon in imported goods. The carbon Footprint component is represented by the area of forest land required to sequester these carbon emissions. Currently, the carbon footprint is the largest portion of humanity's footprint.

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Variable: Carbon biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_carb_bc

About the variable: The biosphere’s ability to uptake CO2, divided by the population size.

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Variable: Carbon footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_carbp

About the variable: The area needed to absorb all fossil fuel carbon emissions generated within the country, divided by the population size. The measurement units are global hectares (gha) per capita.

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Variable: Cropland footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_crop

About the variable: Cropland is the most bioproductive of all the land-use types and consists of areas used to produce food and fibre for human consumption, feed for livestock, oil crops, and rubber. The cropland Footprint includes crop products allocated to livestock and aquaculture feed mixes, and those used for fibres and materials. Due to lack of globally consistent data sets, current cropland Footprint calculations do not yet take into account the extent to which farming techniques or unsustainable agricultural practices may cause long-term degradation of soil.

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Variable: Cropland biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_crop_bc

About the variable: The ability of a biosphere to produce crops (the total cropland area available, weighted by the productivity of this area), divided by the population size.

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Variable: Cropland footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_cropp

About the variable: The area within a country necessary for supporting the harvest of primary products on the cropland. The indicator is divided by the population size and is measured in global hectares (gha) per capita.

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Variable: Total Ecological Footprint of Consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_ef

About the variable: Total ecological footprint of consumption divided by the population size. Measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Total Ecological Footprint of Production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_efp

About the variable: Ecological footprint of production divided by the population size. The units are global hectares (gha) per capita.

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Variable: Total Ecological Footprint of Consumption (total area)
QoG code: ef_eft

About the variable: The total ecological footprint of consumption is measured in global hectares (gha) and includes the area needed to produce the materials consumed and the area needed to absorb the carbon dioxide emissions. The consumption Footprint of a nation is calculated as a nation's primary production Footprint plus the Footprint of imports minus the Footprint of exports. For example, if a country grows cotton for export, the ecological resources required are not included in that country's consumption Footprint. Rather, they are included in the consumption Footprint of the country that imports the T-shirts. However, these ecological resources are included in the exporting country's primary production Footprint.

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Variable: Total Ecological Footprint of Production (total area)
QoG code: ef_eftp

About the variable: A nation's productive footprint is the sum of the footprints for all of the resources harvested and all of the waste generated within the defined geographical region. This includes all the area within a country necessary for supporting the actual harvest of primary products (cropland, pasture land, forestland, and fishing grounds), the country’s built-up area (roads, factories, cities), and the area needed to absorb all fossil fuel carbon emissions generated within the country. If a country grows a crop for export, it is included in the ecological footprint of production of this country and the ecological footprint of consumption of the importing country. The indicator is measured in global hectares (gha).

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Variable: Fish footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_fg

About the variable: The fishing grounds Footprint is calculated based on estimates of the maximum sustainable catch for a variety of fish species. These sustainable catch estimates are converted into an equivalent mass of primary production based on the various species' trophic levels. This estimate of maximum harvestable primary production is then divided amongst the continental shelf areas of the world. Fish caught and used in aquaculture feed mixes are included. Measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Fishing ground biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_fg_bc

About the variable: The ability of a biosphere to produce seafood (the amount of fishing grounds available, weighted by the productivity of fishing grounds). The measure is divided by the population size.

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Variable: Fish footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_fgp

About the variable: The area within a country necessary for supporting the harvest of primary products on fishing grounds. The indicator is divided by the population size and is measured in global hectares (gha) per capita.

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Variable: Forest product footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_for

About the variable: The forest product Footprint is calculated based on the amount of lumber, pulp, timber products, and fuel wood consumed by a population on a yearly basis. Measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Forest land biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_for_bc

About the variable: The ability of a biosphere to produce timber products (the total forest area available, weighted by the productivity of this area), divided by the population size.

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Variable: Forest product footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_forp

About the variable: Forest Footprint represents the area necessary to regenerate all the timber harvested (hence, depending on harvest rates, this area can be bigger or smaller than the forest area that exists within the country). The indicator is divided by the population size and measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Grazing footprint of consumption (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_gl

About the variable: Grazing land is used to raise livestock for meat, dairy, hide, and wool products. The grazing land Footprint is calculated by comparing the amount of livestock feed available in a country with the amount of feed required for all livestock in that year, with the remainder of feed demand assumed to come from grazing land. Measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Grazing land biocapacity per capita
QoG code: ef_gl_bc

About the variable: The ability of a biosphere to produce pasture lands (the total pasture area available, weighted by the productivity/yield of these pastures), divided by the population size.

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Variable: Grazing footprint of production (gha per person)
QoG code: ef_glp

About the variable: The area within a country necessary for supporting the harvest of primary products on pastures. The indicator is divided by the population size and measured in global hectares (gha) per person.

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Variable: Environmental ministry establishment
QoG code: em_envmin

About the variable: Environmental ministry onset. The variable is coded "1" on the year when a national environmental ministry got established. For the rest of the years, the variable is coded "0". The authors expanded temporal and spatial coverage of the data initially published in the article: Busch, P.O. and Jörgens, H., 2005. The international sources of policy convergence: explaining the spread of environmental policy innovations. Journal of European public policy, 12(5), pp.860-884.

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Variable: Total damage from natural disasters in USD
QoG code: emdat_damage

About the variable: The amount of damage to property, crops, and livestock from natural disasters. The value of estimated damage is given in thousands of US dollars. For each natural disaster, the registered number corresponds to the damage value at the moment of the event, i.e. the figures are shown true to the year of the event (do not include expenses that extended to the following years).

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Variable: Number of people affected by natural disasters
QoG code: emdat_naffect

About the variable: The number of people requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency after a natural disasters, i.e. requiring basic survival needs such as food, water, shelter, sanitation, and immediate medical assistance.

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Variable: Number of people killed by natural disasters
QoG code: emdat_ndeath

About the variable: The number of people who lost their lives because the natural hazard happened and people whose whereabouts since the natural disaster is unknown, and who are presumed dead (official figure when available).

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Variable: Number of natural disasters
QoG code: emdat_ndis

About the variable: Total number of natural disasters occurring per country per year. Natural disasters that last more than one year or begin at the end of the year and last into the next are counted at the year of their first occurrence.

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Variable: Number of homeless people after natural disaster
QoG code: emdat_nhome

About the variable: The number of people whose house is destroyed or heavily damaged and therefore need shelter after a natural disaster.

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Variable: Number of people injured in natural disasters
QoG code: emdat_ninj

About the variable: The number of people suffering from physical injuries, trauma or an illness requiring immediate medical assistance as a direct result of a natural disaster.

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Variable: Number of affected (total) by natural disasters
QoG code: emdat_ntotaff

About the variable: Sum of people injured, homeless, and affected as a result of natural disasters.

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Variable: Number of national ENGOs
QoG code: engo_nengo

About the variable: National environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) registered in a country. The data on registered national ENGOs comes from the archives of the International Union for Conservationof Nature (IUCN) for the time period 1973-2006 from 181 countries. While the IUCN covers most countries, it is an umbrella organization where membership is not mandatory and ENGOs do not have to register. As a result, some ENGOs that have not registered with the IUCN may have been omitted. Therefore the variable becomes a proxy for the political leverage of ENGOs.

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Variable: Policy instruments for quality of bathing water
QoG code: epc_bath

About the variable: Policy instruments on quality of bathing water. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for exhaust emissions from cars
QoG code: epc_car

About the variable: Policy instruments on exhaust emissions from cars. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for reduction of CO2 emissions from heavy industry
QoG code: epc_co2

About the variable: Policy instruments on reduction of CO2 emissions from heavy industry. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for hazardous substances in detergents
QoG code: epc_dete

About the variable: Policy instruments on hazardous substances in detergents. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for energy efficiency of refrigerators
QoG code: epc_enef

About the variable: Policy instruments on energy efficiency of refrigerators. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for electricity from renewable sources
QoG code: epc_ener

About the variable: Policy instruments on electricity production from renewable sources. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument' 11 = ‘Extra instrument for energy’.

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Variable: Policy instruments for forest protection policy
QoG code: epc_fors

About the variable: Policy instruments on forest protection. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for lead emissions from vehicles
QoG code: epc_lead

About the variable: Policy instruments on lead emissions from vehicles. The variable measure the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for noise emissions from lorries
QoG code: epc_nois

About the variable: Policy instruments on noise emission from lorries. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments to promote refillable beverage containers
QoG code: epc_pawa

About the variable: Policy instruments to promote refillable beverage containers. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for contaminated sites
QoG code: epc_soil

About the variable: Policy instruments on contaminated sites. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Policy instruments for water protection related to industrial discharges
QoG code: epc_watp

About the variable: Policy instruments on industrial discharges into water bodies. The variable measures the presence of a policy instrument in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Variable coding: 0 = 'No policy' 1 = 'Obligatory standard, prohibition or ban' 2 = 'Technological prescription' 3 = 'Tax or levy' 4 = 'Subsidy or tax reduction' 5 = 'Liability scheme(s)' 6 = 'Planning instrument' 7 = 'Public investment' 8 = 'Data collection / monitoring programme(s)' 9 = 'Information based instrument' 10 = 'Voluntary instrument'.

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Variable: Change in eco audit policy
QoG code: epcc_audi_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for eco-audit in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Eco audit policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_audi_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for eco-audit. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in coliforms in bathing water policy
QoG code: epcc_bath_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for the quality of bathing water in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Coliforms in bathing water policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_bath_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for quality of bathing water. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Passenger car emissions CO regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_car_co

About the variable: A limit value for CO emissions in g/km, adjusted.

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Variable: Passenger car emissions HC regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_car_hc

About the variable: A limit value for HC emissions in g/km, adjusted.

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Variable: Passenger car emissions NOx regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_car_nox

About the variable: A limit value for NOx emissions in g/km, adjusted.

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Variable: Change in passenger car emissions policy
QoG code: epcc_care_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for exhaust emissions from cars in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Passenger car emissions policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_care_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for exhaust emissions from cars. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Sum of downward changes in all 17 standards
QoG code: epcc_cd_dwsum

About the variable: Sum of downward changes in all 17 variables that measure standards/regulatory levels in the recorded year. Higher score, on average, corresponds to a decrease in policy standards.

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Variable: Sum of upward changes in all 17 standards
QoG code: epcc_cd_upsum

About the variable: Sum of all upward changes in the 17 variables that measure standards/regulatory levels included in this dataset in the recorded year. Higher score corresponds to, on average, increased policy standards.

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Variable: Sum of all changes in policy
QoG code: epcc_ch2

About the variable: Sum of all changes in policies, including introductions, in the recorded year.

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Variable: Cumulative sum of all policy-in-place items
QoG code: epcc_ch_kum

About the variable: Cumulative sum of all Policy-in-Place variables. Higher score corresponds to a higher number of policies in place.

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Variable: Change in contaminated sites policy
QoG code: epcc_cont_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for contaminated sites in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Contaminated sites policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_cont_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for contaminated sites. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in recycling of construction waste policy
QoG code: epcc_cowa_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for recycling construction waste in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Recycling of construction waste policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_cowa_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for recycling of construction waste. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in detergents regulation policy
QoG code: epcc_dete_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for hazardous substances in detergents in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Detergents regulation policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_dete_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for hazardous substances in detergents. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in ecolabel policy
QoG code: epcc_ecol_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for eco-labelling in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Ecolabel policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_ecol_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for eco-labeling. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in environmental impact assessment
QoG code: epcc_eias_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for environmental impact assessment in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Environmental impact assessment introduction
QoG code: epcc_eias_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for environmental impact assessment. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in energy efficiency of refrigerators policy
QoG code: epcc_enef_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for the energy efficiency of refrigerators in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Energy efficiency of refrigerators policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_enef_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for energy efficiency of refrigerators. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Glass recycling target in regulations, %
QoG code: epcc_glas2_s

About the variable: Glass reuse/recycling target in percent of total waste generated.

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Variable: Change in glass recycling target in regulation
QoG code: epcc_glas_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for glass reuse/recycling target in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Glass recycling target in regulation introduction
QoG code: epcc_glas_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for glass reuse/recycling target. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Sum of first policy introductions
QoG code: epcc_intro_kum

About the variable: Sum of all variables measuring the first introduction of a policy. Higher number corresponds to a higher number of policies being adopted in the recorded year.

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Variable: Change in landfill target in regulations
QoG code: epcc_land_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for waste landfill target in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Landfill target in regulations introduction
QoG code: epcc_lanr_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for waste landfill target. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Large combustion plants regulatory level DUST
QoG code: epcc_lcp_dust

About the variable: A limit value for dust from large combustion plants in mg/m3.

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Variable: Large combustion plants regulatory level NOX
QoG code: epcc_lcp_nox

About the variable: A limit value for NOx emissions from large combustion plants in mg/m3.

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Variable: Large combustion plants regulatory level SO2
QoG code: epcc_lcp_so2

About the variable: A limit value for SO2 emissions from large combustion plants in mg/m3.

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Variable: Change in large combustion plants policy
QoG code: epcc_lcpt_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for airborne emissions from large combustion plants in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Large combustion plants policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_lcpt_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for airborne emissions from large combustion plants. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change lead content in petrol policy
QoG code: epcc_lead_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for lead emissions from vehicles in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Lead content in petrol policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_lead_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for lead emissions from vehicles. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Lead content in petrol regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_lead_s

About the variable: A limit value for lead content in petrol in g/l.

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Variable: Change in motorway noise emissions policy
QoG code: epcc_moto_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for noise level around motorways in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Motorway noise emissions policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_moto_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for noise level around motorways. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Motorway noise emissions regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_moto_s

About the variable: Motorway noise emissions standard in decibel (dB (A)).

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Variable: Change in noise emissions from lorries policy
QoG code: epcc_nois_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for noise emissions from lorries in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Noise emissions from lorries policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_nois_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for noise emissions from lorries. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Noise emissions from lorries regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_nois_s

About the variable: Noise emissions standard from lorries in decibel (dB(a)).

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Variable: Change in packaging waste recycling target
QoG code: epcc_pact_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for waste packaging target in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Packaging waste recycling target introduction
QoG code: epcc_pact_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for waste packaging target. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Paper recycling target in regulations, %
QoG code: epcc_pape2_s

About the variable: Waste paper reuse/recycling target in percent of waste generated.

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Variable: Change in paper recycling target in regulation
QoG code: epcc_pape_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for waste paper reuse/recycling target in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Paper recycling target in regulation introduction
QoG code: epcc_pape_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for waste paper reuse/recycling target. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in soil policy
QoG code: epcc_soil_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the soil policy in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Soil policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_soil_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the soil policy. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Change in sulphur content gas oil policy
QoG code: epcc_sulp_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for sulphur content in gas oil in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Sulphur content gas oil policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_sulp_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for sulphur content in gas oil. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Sulphur content in gas oil regulatory level
QoG code: epcc_sulp_s

About the variable: A limit value for sulphur content in gas oil, as % per weight.

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Variable: Change in National environmental policy/Sustainable development plan
QoG code: epcc_susp_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for the national environmental policy or sustainable development plan in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: National environmental policy/Sustainable development plan introduction
QoG code: epcc_susp_in2

About the variable: The variable expresses the first introduction of the policy for the national environmental policy or sustainable development plan. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Water protection - BOD in industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_wabo_s

About the variable: A limit value for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in industrial discharges in mg/l.

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Variable: Water protection - Copper in industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_waco_s

About the variable: A limit value for Copper in industrial discharges in mg/l.

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Variable: Water protection - Chromium in industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_wacr_s

About the variable: A limit value for Chromium in industrial discharges in mg/l.

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Variable: Change in efficient use of water in industry policy
QoG code: epcc_waef_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for efficient use of the water industry in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Efficient use of water in industry policy introduction
QoG code: epcc_waef_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for efficient use of the water industry. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Water protection - Lead in industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_wale_s

About the variable: A limit value for Lead in industrial discharges in mg/l.

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Variable: Change in water protection policy - industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_wapr_ch2

About the variable: The variable measures whether there was a change in the policy for water protection in industrial discharges in the recorded year. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when there was a change in the policy, including its first introduction, and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Water protection - industrial discharges introduction
QoG code: epcc_wapr_in2

About the variable: The variable measures the first introduction of the policy for water protection in industrial discharges. This is a binary variable, where "1" is assigned to the year when the policy was first introduced and "0" is assigned to all other years.

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Variable: Water protection - Zinc in industrial discharges
QoG code: epcc_wazi_s

About the variable: A limit value for Zinc in industrial discharges in mg/l.

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Variable: Agriculture Issue Category
QoG code: epi_agr

About the variable: Agriculture Issue Category consists of the Sustainable Nitrogen Management Index, which measures the Euclidean distance from an ideal point with optimal nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and crop yield. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Air Quality Issue Category
QoG code: epi_air

About the variable: Air Quality Issue Category consists of three indicators: 1) Household air pollution (HAP), measured with the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost per 100,000 persons due to the health risk posed by the incomplete combustion of solid fuels. It is log-transformed and given 40% weight in the aggregation. 2) Ambient particulate matter pollution, measured as the PM2.5 exposure using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to fine air particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). It is log-transformed and given 55% weight in the aggregation. 3) Ozone exposure, measured by the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to ground-level ozone pollution. It is log-transformed and given 5% weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Pollution Emissions Issue Category
QoG code: epi_ape

About the variable: Pollution Emissions Issue Category consists of 2 indicators: 1) The SO2 growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in SO2 over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. First, the EPI team calculates Spearman's correlation coefficient between SO2 emissions and GDP over a ten-year period. Second, they regress logged SO2 emissions over ten years to find a slope. Third, they calculate an unadjusted average annual growth rate in SO2 emissions. Fourth, they adjust the negative growth rates by a factor of 1 - the correlation coefficient. 2) The NOX growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in NOX over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. First, the EPI team calculates Spearman's correlation coefficient between NOX emissions and GDP over a ten-year period. Second, they regress logged NOX emissions over ten years to find a slope. Third, they calculate an unadjusted average annual growth rate in NOX emissions. Fourth, they adjust the negative growth rates by a factor of 1 - the correlation coefficient. Both indicators are given equal weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Black carbon growth rate
QoG code: epi_bca

About the variable: The black carbon growth rate, which makes up 5% of the Climate Change Issue Category, is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in black carbon over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Community Emissions Data Systems. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Biodiversity and Habitat Issue Category
QoG code: epi_bdh

About the variable: Biodiversity and Habitat Issue Category consists of 7 indicators: 1) The terrestrial biome protection (national weights) indicator. It is calculated by first taking proportions of the area of each of a country’s biome types that are covered by protected areas and then constructing a weighted sum of the protection percentages for all biomes within that country. The protection percentages are weighted according to the prevalence of each biome type within that country. This indicator evaluates a country's efforts to achieve 17% protection for all biomes within its borders, as per Aichi Target 11. It is given 20% weight in the aggregation. 2) The terrestrial biome protection (global weights) indicator, where protection percentages are weighted according to the global prevalence of each biome type. This indicator evaluates a country’s contribution toward the global 17% protection goal. It is given 20% weight in the aggregation. 3) The marine protected areas indicator, measured as a percentage of a country’s total exclusive economic zone (EEZ) designated as marine protected areas (MPAs). Because each country may have multiple EEZs, the summed area of MPAs is divided by the summed EEZ. It is given 20% weight in the aggregation. 4) The Protected Areas Representativeness Index (PARI), which measures ecological representativeness as the proportion of biologically scaled environmental diversity included in a country's terrestrial protected areas. The measure relies on remote sensing, biodiversity informatics, and global modeling of fine-scaled variation in biodiversity composition for plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate species. It is given 10% weight in the aggregation. 5) Species Habitat Index (SHI) estimates potential population losses, as well as regional and global extinction risks of individual species, using habitat loss as a proxy. The SHI indicator measures the proportion of suitable habitat within a country that remains intact for each species in that country relative to a baseline set in the year 2001. It is given 10% weight in the aggregation. 6) Species Protection Index (SPI) evaluates the species-level ecological representativeness of each country's protected area network. The SPI metric uses remote sensing data, global biodiversity informatics, and integrative models to map suitable habitat for over 30,000 terrestrial vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant species at high resolutions. It is given 10% weight in the aggregation. 7) The Biodiversity Habitat Index (BHI), which estimates the effects of habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation on the expected retention of terrestrial biodiversity. It is given 10% weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Biodiversity habitat index
QoG code: epi_bhv

About the variable: Biodiversity Habitat Index (BHI) estimates the effects of habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation on the expected retention of terrestrial biodiversity. Original source: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Climate Change Issue Category
QoG code: epi_cch

About the variable: Climate Change Issue Category consists of 8 indicators: 1) The CO2 growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw carbon dioxide emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. It is given 55% weight in the aggregation. 2) The CH4 growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw methane emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. It is given 15% weight in the aggregation. 3) The F-gas growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw fluorinated gas emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. It is given 10% weight in the aggregation. 4) The N2O growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw nitrous oxide emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. It is given 5% weight in the aggregation. 5) The black carbon growth rate, calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in black carbon over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. It is given 5% weight in the aggregation. 6) Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per capita in the year 2017. First, the EPI team calculates total greenhouse gas emissions, applying Global Warming Potentials to convert all units to Gg of CO2-equivalents. Second, they calculate GHG emissions per capita (GHP) as the GHG emissions divided by population (POP). It is log-transformed and given 2.5% weight in the aggregation. 7) CO2 emissions from land cover change, calculated over the years 2001-2015. First, the EPI team regresses logged CO2 emissions from land cover change (LULC) over 15 years to find a slope. Then, they calculate an unadjusted average annual growth rate in these CO2 emissions. It is given 2.5% weight in the aggregation. 8) The greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity growth rate indicator, which serves as a signal of countries' progress in decoupling emissions from economic growth. The EPI team calculates an annual average growth rate in GHG emissions per unit of GDP over the years 2008-2017. This indicator highlights the need for action on climate change mitigation in countries at all income levels. It is given 5% weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: CO2 growth rate
QoG code: epi_cda

About the variable: The CO2 (carbon dioxide) growth rate, which makes up 55% of the Climate Change Issue Category, is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw carbon dioxide emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: CH4 growth rate
QoG code: epi_cha

About the variable: The CH4 (methane) growth rate, which makes up 15% of the Climate Change Issue Category, is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw methane emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Ecosystem Services Issue Category
QoG code: epi_ecs

About the variable: Ecosystem Services Issue Category consists of 3 indicators: 1) Tree cover loss, measured as a five-year moving average of the percentage of forest lost from the extent of forest cover in the reference year 2000. They define a forest as any land area with over 30% canopy cover. It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 9.70E-07, and given 90% weight in the aggregation. 2) Grassland loss, measured as a five-year moving average of percentage of gross losses in grassland areas compared to the 1992 reference year. It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 4.45E-06, and given 5% weight in the aggregation. 3) Wetland loss, measured as a five-year moving average of percentage of gross losses in wetland areas compared to the 1992 reference year. It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 2.47E-06, and given 5% weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Environmental Health Policy Objective
QoG code: epi_eh

About the variable: Environmental Health Policy Objective measures how well countries are protecting their populations from environmental health risks. It comprises 40% of the total EPI score and consists of 4 issue categories: Air Quality (50%), Sanitation and Drinking Water (40%), Heavy Metals (5%), and Waste Management (5%). The policy objective varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Environmental Performance Index
QoG code: epi_epi

About the variable: The 2020 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) scores 180 countries on 32 performance indicators across 11 issue categories related to environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The 2020 EPI is a composite index. The EPI researchers begin by gathering data on 32 individual metrics of environmental performance. These metrics are aggregated into a hierarchy beginning with 11 issue categories: Air Quality, Sanitation and Drinking Water, Heavy Metals, Waste Management, Biodiversity and Habitat, Ecosystem Services, Fisheries, Climate Change, Pollution Emissions, Water Resources, and Agriculture. These issue categories are then combined into 2 policy objectives, Environmental Health and Ecosystem Vitality, and then finally consolidated into the overall EPI. To allow for meaningful comparisons, before aggregation the EPI researchers construct scores for each of the 32 indicators, placing them onto a common scale where 0 indicates worst performance and 100 indicates best performance. How far a country is from achieving international targets of sustainability determines its placement on this scale. Note: The EPI scores are not comparable over time, therefore, this dataset only includes the EPI scores from the latest release.

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Variable: Ecosystem Vitality Policy Objective
QoG code: epi_ev

About the variable: Ecosystem Vitality Policy Objective measures how well countries are preserving, protecting, and enhancing ecosystems and the services they provide. It comprises 60% of the total EPI score and consists of 7 issue categories: Biodiversity and Habitat (25%), Ecosystem Services (10%), Fisheries (10%), Climate Change (40%), Pollution Emissions (5%), Agriculture (5%), and Water Resources (5%). The policy objective varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Fish caught by trawling
QoG code: epi_fct

About the variable: Fish caught by trawling measures the percentage of a country's fish caught by bottom or pelagic trawling, where a fishing net is pulled through the water behind a boat. This practice is indiscriminate and wasteful and can severely damage marine ecosystems. The variable is log-transformed according to the formula ln(x+α), where α = 8.40E-08. Original source: Sea Around Us. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: F-gas growth rate
QoG code: epi_fga

About the variable: The F-gas growth rate, which makes up 10% of the Climate Change Issue Category, is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw fluorinated gas emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Fisheries Issue Category
QoG code: epi_fsh

About the variable: Fisheries Issue Category consists of 3 indicators: 1) Fish stock status, measured as the percentage of a country's total catch that comes from overexploited or collapsed stocks, considering all fish stocks within a country's EEZs. Because continued and increased stock exploitation leads to smaller catches, this indicator sheds light on the impact of a country's fishing practices. The metric is calculated as an average percentage weighted by catch and summed across classes of concern. It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 1.13E-05, and given 35% weight in the aggregation. 2) Marine Trophic Index (MTI), which measures the health of a country's fishing stock based on expected catch and changes over time. The MTI describes the degree to which a country is depleting species at higher trophic levels and “fishing down the food web.” It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 9.51E-07, and given 35% weight in the aggregation. 3) Fish caught by trawling, measured as the percentage of a country's fish caught by bottom or pelagic trawling, where a fishing net is pulled through the water behind a boat. It is log-transformed, ln(x + α), α = 8.40E-08, and given 30% weight in the aggregation. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Fish stock status
QoG code: epi_fss

About the variable: Fish stock status measures the percentage of a country's total catch that comes from overexploited or collapsed stocks, considering all fish stocks within a country's EEZs. Because continued and increased stock exploitation leads to smaller catches, this indicator sheds light on the impact of a country's fishing practices. The variable is log-transformed according to the formula ln(x+α), where α = 1.13E-05. Original source: Sea Around Us. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: GHG emissions per capita
QoG code: epi_ghp

About the variable: EPI calculates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per capita for each country in the year 2017. The variable is log-transformed. The unit of measurement is gigagrams (Gg) of CO2-equivalent per person. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: GHG intensity trend
QoG code: epi_gib

About the variable: The greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity growth rate indicator serves as a signal of countries' progress in decoupling emissions from economic growth. EPI calculates an annual average growth rate in GHG emissions per unit of GDP over the years 2008-2017. This indicator highlights the need for action on climate change mitigation in countries at all income levels. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Grassland loss
QoG code: epi_grl

About the variable: Grassland loss is measured using a five-year moving average of percentage of gross losses in grassland areas compared to the 1992 reference year. The variable is log-transformed according to the formula ln(x+α), where α = 4.45E-06. Original source: European Space Agency. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Sanitation and Drinking Water Issue Category
QoG code: epi_h2o

About the variable: Sanitation and Drinking Water Issue Category consists of two indicators: 1) Unsafe sanitation, measured as the proportion of a country's population exposed to health risks from their access to sanitation, defined by the primary toilet type used by households. It is log-transformed and given 40% weight in the aggregation. 2) Unsafe drinking water, measured as the proportion of a country's population exposed to health risks from their access to drinking water, defined by the primary water source used by households and the household water treatment, or the treatment that happens at the point of water collection. It is log-transformed and given 60% weight in the aggregation. Both indicators are measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost per 100,000 persons. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Household solid fuels
QoG code: epi_had

About the variable: EPI measures household solid fuels using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from the use of household solid fuels. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Heavy Metals Issue Category
QoG code: epi_hmt

About the variable: Heavy Metals Issue Category consists of the indicator Lead Exposure, which measures the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost per 100,000 persons due to this risk. It is log-transformed. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: CO2 from land cover
QoG code: epi_lcb

About the variable: This indicator measures CO2 emissions from land cover change and is calculated over the years 2001-2015. The unit of measurement is proportion. Original source: Mullion Group. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Marine protected areas
QoG code: epi_mpa

About the variable: Marine protected areas indicator is measured as the percentage of a country's total exclusive economic zone (EEZ) designated as marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs represent a critical tool for protecting marine ecosystems from unsustainable fishing practices, pollution, and human disturbance. Because each country may have multiple EEZs, the summed area of MPAs is divided by the summed EEZ. Original source: World Database on Protected Areas. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Controlled solid waste
QoG code: epi_msw

About the variable: Controlled solid waste refers to the proportion of household and commercial waste generated in a country that is collected and treated in a manner that controls environmental risks. This metric counts waste as “controlled” if it is treated through recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, or disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Original source: Wiedinmyer et al. 2014 & Kaza et al. 2018. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Marine trophic index
QoG code: epi_mti

About the variable: Marine Trophic Index (MTI) measures the health of a country's fishing stock based on expected catch and changes over time. The MTI measures the degree to which a country is depleting species at higher trophic levels and “fishing down the food web.” The variable is log-transformed according to the formula ln(x+α), where α = 9.51E-07. Original source: Sea Around Us. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: N2O growth rate
QoG code: epi_noa

About the variable: The N2O growth rate, which makes up 5% of the Climate Change issue category, is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in raw nitrous oxide emissions over the years 2008-2017. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: NOx growth rate
QoG code: epi_nxa

About the variable: The NOX growth rate is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in NOX over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Community Emissions Data Systems. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Ozone exposure
QoG code: epi_ozd

About the variable: EPI measures ozone exposure using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to ground-level ozone pollution. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Protected areas representativeness index
QoG code: epi_par

About the variable: The PARI indicator measures ecological representativeness as the proportion of biologically scaled environmental diversity included in a country's terrestrial protected areas. The measure relies on remote sensing, biodiversity informatics, and global modeling of fine-scaled variation in biodiversity composition for plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate species. Original source: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Lead exposure
QoG code: epi_pbd

About the variable: EPI measures lead exposure using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to lead contamination in the environment. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: PM2.5 exposure
QoG code: epi_pmd

About the variable: Ambient particulate matter pollution measured with the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to fine air particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Transformation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: SO2 growth rate
QoG code: epi_sda

About the variable: The SO2 growth rate is calculated as the average annual rate of increase or decrease in SO2 over the years 2005-2014. It is then adjusted for economic trends to isolate change due to policy rather than economic fluctuation. Original source: Community Emissions Data Systems. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Species habitat index
QoG code: epi_shi

About the variable: Species Habitat Index (SHI) estimates potential population losses, as well as regional and global extinction risks of individual species, using habitat loss as a proxy. The SHI indicator measures the proportion of suitable habitat within a country that remains intact for each species in that country relative to a baseline set in the year 2001. Original source: Map of Life. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Sustainable nitrogen management index
QoG code: epi_snm

About the variable: The Sustainable Nitrogen Management Index (SNMI) seeks to balance efficient application of nitrogen fertilizer with maximum crop yields as a measure of the environmental performance of agricultural production. The 2020 EPI uses the SNMI as a proxy for agricultural drivers of environmental damage. Original source: UMCES. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Species protection index
QoG code: epi_spi

About the variable: Species Protection Index (SPI) evaluates the species-level ecological representativeness of each country's protected area network. The SPI metric uses remote sensing data, global biodiversity informatics, and integrative models to map suitable habitat for over 30,000 terrestrial vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant species at high resolutions. The unit of measurement is percentage. Original source: Map of Life. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Terrestrial biome protection (Global weights)
QoG code: epi_tbg

About the variable: EPI derives the terrestrial biome protection indicators by first calculating the proportions of the area of each of a country's biome types that are covered by protected areas and then constructing a weighted sum of the protection percentages for all biomes within that country. For the terrestrial biome protection (global weights) indicator, protection percentages are weighted according to the global prevalence of each biome type. This indicator evaluates a country's contribution toward the global 17% protection goal. Original source: World Database on Protected Areas. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Terrestrial biome protection (National weights)
QoG code: epi_tbn

About the variable: EPI derives the terrestrial biome protection indicators by first calculating the proportions of the area of each of a country's biome types that are covered by protected areas and then constructing a weighted sum of the protection percentages for all biomes within that country. For the terrestrial biome protection (national weights) indicator, protection percentages are weighted according to the prevalence of each biome type within that country. This indicator evaluates a country's efforts to achieve 17% protection for all biomes within its borders, as per Aichi Target 11. Original source: World Database on Protected Areas. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Tree cover loss
QoG code: epi_tcl

About the variable: EPI quantifies tree cover loss by constructing a five-year moving average of the percentage of forest lost from the extent of forest cover in the reference year 2000. A forest is defined as any land area with over 30% canopy cover. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Global Forest Watch. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Unsafe sanitation
QoG code: epi_usd

About the variable: EPI measures unsafe sanitation using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to their exposure to inadequate sanitation facilities. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Unsafe drinking water
QoG code: epi_uwd

About the variable: EPI measures unsafe drinking water using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to unsafe drinking water. The variable is log-transformed. Original source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Waste Management Issue Category
QoG code: epi_wmg

About the variable: Waste Management Issue Category consists of the indicator Controlled Solid Waste, which refers to the proportion of household and commercial waste generated in a country that is collected and treated in a manner that controls environmental risks. This metric counts waste as "controlled" if it is treated through recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, or disposed of in a sanitary landfill. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Water Resources Issue Category
QoG code: epi_wrs

About the variable: Water Resources Issue Category consists of the indicator Wastewater Treatment, which measures the percentage of wastewater that undergoes at least primary treatment, normalized by the proportion of the population connected to a municipal wastewater collection system. It is calculated through a straightforward product of wastewater treatment level and sewerage connection rate. The issue category varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Wetland loss
QoG code: epi_wtl

About the variable: Wetland loss is quantified using a five-year moving average of percentage of gross losses in wetland areas compared to the 1992 reference year. The variable is log-transformed according to the formula ln(x+α), where α = 2.47E-06. Original source: European Space Agency. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Wastewater treatment
QoG code: epi_wwt

About the variable: The percentage of wastewater that undergoes at least primary treatment in each country, normalized by the proportion of the population connected to a municipal wastewater collection system. Original source: UNSD, OECD, Eurostat, etc. When using this variable, please cite both EPI and the original source.

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Variable: Climate policy support: bans (mean)
QoG code: ess_banhhap_m

About the variable: Average reply to D30-32: "To what extent are you in favour or against the following policies in [country] to reduce climate change? A law banning the sale of the least energy-efficient household appliances". (1) Strongly in favor, (2) Somewhat in favor, (3) Neither in favor nor against, (4) Somewhat against, (5) Strongly against. Answers (7) Refusal and (8) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that there is a higher aversion towards the proposed ban in the general population. A lower score means that there is a higher support towards the ban in the general population.

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Variable: Belief that climate change is natural (%)
QoG code: ess_ccnthum_p

About the variable: Percent of replies "(1) Entirely by natural processes" and "(2) Mainly by natural processes" to D22: "Do you think that climate change is caused by natural processes, human activity, or both?". (1) Entirely by natural processes, (2) Mainly by natural processes, (3) About equally by natural processes and human activity, (4) Mainly by human activity, (5) Entirely by human activity, (55) I don't think climate change is happening, (77) Refusal, (88) Don't know. A higher score means that there are more people who believe that climate change is happening due to natural rather than human-induced causes. A lower score means that there are fewer people who believe that these are natural processes that are behind climate change.

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Variable: Personal responsibility to reduce climate change (mean)
QoG code: ess_ccrdprs_m

About the variable: Average reply to D23: "To what extent do you feel a personal responsibility to try to reduce climate change?". (00) Not at all - (10) A great deal. Answers (77) Refusal and (88) Don't know are deleted. The higher the score the more people feel personal responsibility for reducing climate change. The lower the score the fewer people feel personal responsibility for reducing climate change.

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Variable: Climate change denial (%)
QoG code: ess_clmchng_p

About the variable: Percent of replies "(3) Probably not changing" and "(4) Definitely not changing" to D19: "You may have heard the idea that the world's climate is changing due to increases in temperature over the past 100 years. What is your personal opinion on this? Do you think the world's climate is changing?". (1) Definitely changing, (2) Probably changing, (3) Probably not changing, (4) Definitely not changing, (7) Refusal, (8) Don't know. A higher score means that more people believe that the climate is not changing. A lower score means that more people believe that the climate is changing.

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Variable: Thinking about climate change (mean)
QoG code: ess_clmthgt_m

About the variable: Average reply to D20 and D21: "How much have you thought about climate change before today?". (1) Not at all, (2) Very little, (3) Some, (4) A lot, (5) A great deal. Answers (7) Refusal and (8) Don't know are deleted. D20 was only asked to those who replied "(4) Definitely not changing" to question D19 "Do you think climate is changing?". D21 is the same question but was asked to everyone else. In this dataset, we combined the replies for D20 and D21 before taking an average. A higher score means that a larger part of the population thought about climate change prior to the survey. A lower score means that a smaller part of the population thought about climate change prior to the survey.

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Variable: Belief in climate action: governments (mean)
QoG code: ess_gvsrdcc_m

About the variable: Average reply to D28: "And how likely do you think it is that governments in enough countries will take action that reduces climate change?". (00) Not likely at all - (10) Extremely likely. Answers (77) Refusal and (88) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that larger parts of the population believe that enough governments will take action towards climate change. A lower score means that fewer people believe that enough governments will take action towards climate change.

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Variable: Important to care for the environment (mean)
QoG code: ess_impenv_m

About the variable: Average reply to CARD 76: "Now I will briefly describe some people. Please listen to each description and tell me how much each person is or is not like you. Use this card for your answer; She/he strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to her/him". (1) Very much like me (2) Like me (3) Somewhat like me (4) A little like me (5) Not like me (6) Not like me at all Answers "Don't know" are deleted. A higher score means that fewer people think that it is important to care about nature/environment. A lower score means that more people think that it is important to care about nature/environment.

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Variable: Climate policy support: taxes (mean)
QoG code: ess_inctxff_m

About the variable: Average reply to D30-32: "To what extent are you in favour or against the following policies in [country] to reduce climate change? Increasing taxes on fossil fuels, such as oil, gas and coal".(1) Strongly in favor, (2) Somewhat in favor, (3) Neither in favor nor against, (4) Somewhat against, (5) Strongly against. Answers (7) Refusal and (8) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that the aversion towards a fossil fuel tax is higher in the population. A lower score means that there is more support towards a fossil fuel tax in the population.

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Variable: Belief in climate action: individuals (mean)
QoG code: ess_lklmten_m

About the variable: Average reply to D27: "How likely do you think it is that large numbers of people will actually limit their energy use to try to reduce climate change?". (00) Not likely at all - (10) Extremely likely. Answers (77) Refusal and (88) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that more people believe that a large number of people are likely to limit energy consumption to reduce climate change. A lower score means that fewer people believe that a large number of people are likely to reduce energy consumption to reduce climate change.

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Variable: Climate policy support: subsidies (mean)
QoG code: ess_sbsrnen_m

About the variable: Average reply to D30-32: "To what extent are you in favour or against the following policies in [country] to reduce climate change? Using public money to subsidise renewable energy such as wind and solar power". (1) Strongly in favor, (2) Somewhat in favor, (3) Neither in favor nor against, (4) Somewhat against, (5) Strongly against. Answers (7) Refusal and (8) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that there is more aversion in the population towards government subsidies towards renewable energy. A lower score means that there is more support for renewable energy subsidies.

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Variable: Worry about climate change (mean)
QoG code: ess_wrclmch_m

About the variable: Average reply to D24: "How worried are you about climate change?". (1) Not at all worried, (2) Not very worried, (3) Somewhat worried, (4) Very worried, (5) Extremely worried. Answers (7) Refusal and (8) Don't know are deleted. A higher score means that there is a higher degree of worry in the population about climate change. A lower score means that there is less worry in the population about climate change.

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Variable: Resident population % not connected to urban \& wastewater treatment plants
QoG code: eu_envnc

About the variable: Percentage of resident population not connected to urban and other wastewater treatment plants

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Variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarry (Female) %tot
QoG code: eu_sctabf

About the variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarrying (Female) % total employment

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Variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarry (Male) % tot
QoG code: eu_sctabm

About the variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarrying (Male) % total employment

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Variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarry (Total) % tot
QoG code: eu_sctabt

About the variable: Employment in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, Quarrying (Total) % total employment

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Variable: Agricultural land (% of Land area)
QoG code: fao_luagr

About the variable: Agricultural land as a share of total land area.

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Variable: Arable land (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrara

About the variable: Arable land as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Cropland (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrcrop

About the variable: Cropland as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Agriculture area actually irrigated (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrirrac

About the variable: Agriculture area actually irrigated as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Land area equipped for irrigation (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrirreq

About the variable: Land area equipped for irrigation as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Land area equipped for irrigation (% of Cropland)
QoG code: fao_luagrirreqcrop

About the variable: Land area equipped for irrigation as a share of total cropland.

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Variable: Agriculture area under organic agric. (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrorg

About the variable: Agriculture area under organic agriculture as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Land under perm meadows and pastures (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrpas

About the variable: Land under perm meadows and pastures as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Land under permanent crops (% of Agricultural land)
QoG code: fao_luagrpcrop

About the variable: Land under permanent crops as a share of total agricultural land.

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Variable: Cropland (% of Land area)
QoG code: fao_lucrop

About the variable: Cropland as a share of total land area.

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Variable: Forest land (% of Land area)
QoG code: fao_luforest

About the variable: Forest land as a share of total land area.

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Variable: Planted forest (% of Forest area)
QoG code: fao_luforplant

About the variable: Planted forest as a share of total forest area.

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Variable: Other naturally regenerated forest (% of Forest area)
QoG code: fao_luforreg

About the variable: Other naturally regenerated forest as a share of total forest area.

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Variable: Land under perm meadows and pastures (% of Land area)
QoG code: fao_lupas

About the variable: Land under perm meadows and pastures as a share of total land area.

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Variable: Expenditure on environment protection, as % of total gen. gov. exp.
QoG code: gfs_envr

About the variable: Total expenditure on environment protection, as the percentage of general government expenditure.

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Variable: Population connected to public sewerage, % total population
QoG code: gg_asew_pop

About the variable: The percentage of the total population with access to public sewerage.

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Variable: Population connected to sewerage with primary treatment, % total population
QoG code: gg_asewp

About the variable: The percentage of the total population with access to public sewerage that includes a primary treatment process. Warning: this variable has some negative values, which falls outside the expected range for percentage variables. Check the original dataset for explanations or updates.

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Variable: Population connected to sewerage with secondary treatment, % total population
QoG code: gg_asews

About the variable: The percentage of the total population with access to public sewerage that includes a secondary treatment process.

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Variable: Population connected to sewerage with tertiary treatment, % total population
QoG code: gg_asewt

About the variable: The percentage of the total population with access to public sewerage that includes a tertiary treatment process.

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Variable: Built up area per capita
QoG code: gg_buapc

About the variable: The number of square meters of built-up area per inhabitant (m2/person).

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Variable: Built up area, % total land
QoG code: gg_buapt

About the variable: The built up area expressed as a percentage of total land area.

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Variable: Energy intensity, TPES per capita
QoG code: gg_ei

About the variable: The energy intensity calculated as TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply) per capita (toe/person).

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Variable: Environmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&D
QoG code: gg_envrd_gbaord

About the variable: Environmentally related government R&D budget measures government budget appropriations or outlays for environmentally related research and development (R&D). It is expressed as a percentage of total government R&D expenditure.

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Variable: Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDP
QoG code: gg_envrd_gdp

About the variable: The environmentally related research and development (R&D) expenditure, expressed as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP).

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Variable: Environmentally related taxes, % GDP
QoG code: gg_envtax_gdp

About the variable: Total revenue gathered from environmentally-related taxes, fees, charges, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems, environmentally motivated subsidies, and voluntary approaches used for environmental policy, as percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The tax bases covered include: - Energy products (including vehicle fuels); - Motor vehicles and transport services; - Measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, as well as management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife, and fish stocks. Same as oecd_etr_gdp.

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Variable: Environmentally related ODA, % total ODA
QoG code: gg_eoda

About the variable: The environmentally related Official Development Assistance (ODA) expressed as a percentage of total ODA.

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Variable: Energy public RD&D budget, % GDP
QoG code: gg_erdgdp

About the variable: The public budget for energy related research, development, and demonstration as a percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP).

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Variable: Development of environment-related technologies, % all technologies
QoG code: gg_etp

About the variable: The number of environment-related inventions expressed as a percentage of all domestic inventions (in all technologies). Indicators of technology development are constructed by measuring inventive activity using patent data across a wide range of environment-related technological domains (ENV-TECH, see link below), including environmental management, water-related adaptation, and climate change mitigation technologies. The counts used here include only higher-value inventions (with patent family size = 2).

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Variable: Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwide
QoG code: gg_etpw

About the variable: The number of environment-related inventions expressed as a percentage of environment-related inventions worldwide. Indicators of technology development are constructed by measuring inventive activity using patent data across a wide range of environment-related technological domains (ENV-TECH), including environmental management, water-related adaptation, and climate change mitigation technologies. The counts used here include only higher-value inventions (with patent family size = 2, meaning inventions filed in two or more jurisdictions).

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Variable: Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&D
QoG code: gg_ffrd

About the variable: The public budget directed at research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) related to fossil fuels, including oil, gas, and coal and excluding RD&D related to CO2 capture and storage (CCS), expressed as a percentage of total energy RD&D public budgets (directed at all forms of energy).

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Variable: Forest resource stocks
QoG code: gg_frs

About the variable: The growing stock of standing trees expressed in million cubic meters (m3).

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Variable: Forests under sustainable management certification FSC, % total forest area
QoG code: gg_fsmc

About the variable: The share of forest area with a long-term management plan under the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification expressed as a percentage of the total forest area.

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Variable: Intensity of use of forest resources
QoG code: gg_iufr

About the variable: The intensity of use of forest resources measured as the ratio of actual fellings over annual productive capacity (i.e. gross increment).

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Variable: Mortality from exposure to ambient ozone
QoG code: gg_mao

About the variable: The mortality from exposure to ambient ozone expressed in deaths per million inhabitants.

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Variable: Mortality from exposure to lead
QoG code: gg_ml

About the variable: The mortality from exposure to lead expressed in deaths per million inhabitants.

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Variable: Mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5
QoG code: gg_mpm

About the variable: The mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5 expressed in deaths per million inhabitants.

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Variable: Mortality from exposure to residential radon
QoG code: gg_mr

About the variable: The mortality from exposure to residential radon expressed in deaths per million inhabitants.

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Variable: Municipal waste generated, kg per capita
QoG code: gg_mwgpc

About the variable: The waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities expressed in kilograms (kg) per person.

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Variable: Municipal waste incinerated, % treated waste
QoG code: gg_mwipt

About the variable: The municipal waste incinerated expressed as a percentage of all waste treated.

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Variable: Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated waste
QoG code: gg_mwlpt

About the variable: The municipal waste disposed to landfills expressed as a percentage of all waste treated.

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Variable: Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste
QoG code: gg_mwrpt

About the variable: The municipal waste recycled or composted expressed as a percentage of all waste treated.

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Variable: ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODA
QoG code: gg_oda_ccm

About the variable: The Official Development Assistance (ODA) targeting climate change mitigation expressed as a percentage of total ODA.

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Variable: Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5
QoG code: gg_pm25ex10p

About the variable: The percentage of population exposed to a fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration greater than 10 micrograms (μg) per cubic meter (m3). The World Health Organization (WHO) provides air quality guidelines based on scientific evidence and expert advice. 10 μg/m3 is the air quality guideline (AQG): These are the lowest levels at which total, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality have been shown to increase with more than 95% confidence in response to long-term exposure to PM2.5.

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Variable: Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 μg/m3 of PM2.5
QoG code: gg_pm25ex35p

About the variable: The percentage of population exposed to a fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration greater than 35 micrograms (μg) per cubic meter (m3). The World Health Organization (WHO) provides air quality guidelines based on scientific evidence and expert advice. 35 μg/m3 is interim target-1: These levels are associated with about a 15% higher long-term mortality risk relative to the Air Quality Guideline (AQG) level, which is 10 μg/m3.

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Variable: Mean population exposure to PM2.5
QoG code: gg_pm25exm

About the variable: The average mirogram concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) per cubic meter exposed to the population. This environmental and health hazard is measured by population-weighted concentration estimates (See OECD dataset "Exposure to PM2.5 in countries and regions").

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Variable: Petrol tax, USD per litre
QoG code: gg_pt

About the variable: The tax rates per litre of petrol expressed at constant 2015 US dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP). The tax rates are calculated as the arithmetic average of the household excise tax for the unleaded premium 95, unleaded premium 98, and unleaded regular petrol, and are deflated using the Consumer Price Index.

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Variable: Renewable energy supply, % TPES
QoG code: gg_re_tpes

About the variable: Renewable energy supply is defined as the contribution of renewables to the total primary energy supply (TPES).

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Variable: Renewable electricity, % total electricity generation
QoG code: gg_reperegen

About the variable: The percentage of the national electrical supply generated from renewable sources.

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Variable: Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&D
QoG code: gg_rerd_erd

About the variable: The percentage of all public energy related research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) that is directed towards renewable energy.

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Variable: Threatened bird species, % total known species
QoG code: gg_tbs

About the variable: The number of threatened bird species expressed as a percentage of total known species within a country.

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Variable: Threatened mammal species, % total known species
QoG code: gg_tms

About the variable: The number of threatened mammal species expressed as a percentage of total known species within a country.

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Variable: Threatened vascular plant species, % total known species
QoG code: gg_tps

About the variable: The number of threatened vascular plant species expressed as a percentage of total known species within a country.

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Variable: Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total available renewable resources
QoG code: gg_wsa

About the variable: The total freshwater abstraction as a percentage of available renewable sources, as a proxy for water stress (scarcity). Abstraction refers to any process of water removal, extraction, or diversion for human use. A higher percentage indicates greater water stress.

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Variable: Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total internal renewable resources
QoG code: gg_wsi

About the variable: The total freshwater abstraction as a percentage of available internal renewable sources, as a proxy for water stress. Internal resources refer only to river flows and groundwater from rainfall within the country. Abstraction refers to any process of water removal, extraction, or diversion for human use. A higher percentage, therefore, indicates greater water stress.

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Variable: The Region of the Country
QoG code: ht_region

About the variable: This is a tenfold politico-geographic classification of world regions, based on a mixture of two considerations: geographical proximity (with the partial exception of category 5 below) and demarcation by area specialists having contributed to a regional understanding of democratization. The categories are as follow: 1. Eastern Europe and post Soviet Union (including Central Asia) 2. Latin America (including Cuba, Haiti \& the Dominican Republic) 3. North Africa \& the Middle East (including Israel, Turkey \& Cyprus) 4. Sub-Saharan Africa 5. Western Europe and North America (including Australia \& New Zealand) 6. East Asia (including Japan \& Mongolia) 7. South-East Asia 8. South Asia 9. The Pacific (excluding Australia \& New Zealand) 10. The Caribbean (including Belize, Guyana \& Suriname, but excluding Cuba, Haiti \& the Dominican Republic)

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Variable: Number of IEAs entered into force for the first time
QoG code: iead_eif1

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols that entered into force for the first time (before any withdrawals), in the recorded year.

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Variable: Number of IEAs entered into force for the second time
QoG code: iead_eif2

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols that entered into force after the first withdrawal, in the recorded year.

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Variable: Number of IEAs entered into force for the third time
QoG code: iead_eif3

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols that entered into force after the second withdrawal, in the recorded year.

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Variable: Number of IEAs in force, counting terminated IEAs
QoG code: iead_inforce

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols in force, including international environmental agreements that have been terminated.

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Variable: Number of IEAs in force, not counting terminated IEAs
QoG code: iead_inforce_noterm

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols in force, not counting terminated international environmental agreements.

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Variable: Number of IEAs ratified per year
QoG code: iead_rat

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols ratified in the recorded year. The users are encouraged to use "entry into force" instead of signatures and ratifications.

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Variable: Number of IEAs signed per year
QoG code: iead_sig

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols signed in the recorded year. The data on signatures are incomplete. Signatures are fewer than ratifications or entry into force because secretariats, e.g., the UN Treaty Series, often do not keep track of signatures. The users are encouraged to use "entry into force" instead of signatures and ratifications.

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Variable: Number of terminated IEAs per year
QoG code: iead_term

About the variable: The number of international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols terminated in the recorded year.

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Variable: Number of first withdrawals from IEAs per year
QoG code: iead_withdraw1

About the variable: The number of first-time withdrawals from international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols in the recorded year.

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Variable: Number of second withdrawals from IEAs per year
QoG code: iead_withdraw2

About the variable: The number of second-time withdrawals from international environmental agreements, amendments, and protocols in the recorded year.

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Variable: Rural Sector
QoG code: iiag_rs

About the variable: Rural sector is one of the four sub-categories that are used to calculate the Foundations for Economic Opportunity category score. It consists of four indicators from International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

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Variable: Worry about environment vs jobs (mean)
QoG code: issp_10am

About the variable: Average reply to the question: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? We worry too much about the future of the environment and not enough about prices and jobs today". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 10a. In Environment II (2000) - question 4a. In Environment I (1993) - question 5a. A higher score means that smaller parts of the population think that there is too much worry about the environment. A lower score means that larger parts of the population think that there is too much worry about the environment and too little worry about prices and jobs.

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Variable: Unwillingness to pay higher prices (%)
QoG code: issp_12ap

About the variable: Percent of replies "fairly unwilling" and "very unwilling" to 12a: "How willing would you be to pay much higher prices in order to protect the environment?". Original replies include: (1) Very willing, (2) Fairly willing, (3) Neither willing nor unwilling, (4) Fairly unwilling, (5) Very unwilling, (8) Can't choose. In Environment III (2010) - question 12a. In Environment II (2000) - question 7a. In Environment I (1993) - question 8a. A higher score means that fewer people are willing to pay higher prices for environmental protection. A lower score means that more people are willing to pay higher prices for environmental protection.

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Variable: Unwillingness to pay higher taxes (%)
QoG code: issp_12bp

About the variable: Percent of replies "fairly unwilling" and "very unwilling" to 12b: "And how willing would you be to pay much higher taxes in order to protect the environment?". Original replies include: (1) Very willing, (2) Fairly willing, (3) Neither willing nor unwilling, (4) Fairly unwilling, (5) Very unwilling, (8) Can't choose. In Environment III (2010) - question 12b. In Environment II (2000) - question 7b. In Environment I (1993) - question 8b. A higher score means that fewer people are willing to pay more taxes for environmental protection. A lower score means that more people are willing to pay higher taxes for environmental protection.

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Variable: Unwillingness to cut in standard of living (%)
QoG code: issp_12cp

About the variable: Percent of replies "fairly unwilling" and "very unwilling" to 12c: "And how willing would you be to accept cuts in your standard of living in order to protect the environment?". Original replies include: (1) Very willing, (2) Fairly willing, (3) Neither willing nor unwilling, (4) Fairly unwilling, (5) Very unwilling, (8) Can't choose. In Environment III (2010) - question 12c. In Environment II (2000) - question 7c. In Environment I (1993) - question 8c. A higher score means that fewer people are willing to accept cuts in the standard of living for environmental protection. A lower score means that more people are willing to accept cuts in the standard of living for environmental protection.

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Variable: Individual action is insufficient (mean)
QoG code: issp_13am

About the variable: Average reply to 13a: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? It is just too difficult for someone like me to do much about the environment". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 13a. In Environment II (2000) - question 8a. In Environment I (1993) - question 9a. A higher score means that fewer people believe that it is too difficult to do something about the environment as an individual. A lower score means that more people believe that it is too difficult to do something about the environment as an individual.

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Variable: Environmental behavior (mean)
QoG code: issp_13bm

About the variable: Average reply to 13b: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? I do what is right for the environment, even when it costs more money or takes more time". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 13b. In Environment II (2000) - question 8b. In Environment I (1993) - question 9b. A higher score means that fewer people are willing to spend more money/time to do what is best for the environment. A lower score means that more people are willing to spend more money/time to do what is right for the environment.

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Variable: Claims about environmental threats are exaggerated (mean)
QoG code: issp_13em

About the variable: Average reply to 13e: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? Many of the claims about environmental threats are exaggerated". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Answers (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 13e. In Environment II (2000) - question 8e. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that fewer people think that environmental treats are exaggerated. A lower score means that more people think that environmental threats are exaggerated.

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Variable: Perceived vulnerability to environmental problems (mean)
QoG code: issp_13gm

About the variable: Average reply to 13g: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? Environmental problems have a direct effect on my everyday life". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 13g. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that fewer people think that environmental problems affect everyday life. A lower score means that more people think that environmental problems affect everyday life.

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Variable: Support for government action to make people comply (%)
QoG code: issp_15ap

About the variable: Percent of replies for 15a: "If you had to choose, which one of the following would be closest to your views? (2) Government should pass laws to make ordinary people protect the environment, even if it interferes with people’s rights to make their own decisions". Other replies include (1) Government should let ordinary people decide for themselves how to protect the environment, even if it means they don’t always do the right thing, and (8) Can't choose. In Environment III (2010) - question 15a. In Environment II (2000) - question 13a. In Environment I (1993) - question 18a. The higher the score the higher the belief that the government should pass laws to make people protect the environment. The lower the score the lower the belief that the government should pass laws to make people protect the environment.

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Variable: Priority of future energy sources - fossil fuels (%)
QoG code: issp_18p

About the variable: Percent of replies (1) Coal, oil and natural gas to 18: "To which of the following should [COUNTRY] give priority in order to meet its future energy needs?". Other replies include: (2) Nuclear power, (3) Solar, wind or water power, (4) Fuels made from crop, (5) None of them. In Environment III (2010) - question 18. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of survey. The higher the score the higher the percentage of people that prefers fossil fuels over other sources. The lower the score the lower the percentage of people that prefers fossil fuels over other sources.

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Variable: Attitudes on international environmental agreements (mean)
QoG code: issp_19am

About the variable: Average reply to 19a: "How much do you agree or disagree with each of these statements? For environmental problems, there should be international agreements that [COUNTRY] and other countries should be made to follow". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 19a. In Environment II (2000) - question 16a. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that there is less support in the population for international agreements. A lower score means that there is more support in the population towards international agreements.

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Variable: Attitudes towards global environmental justice (mean)
QoG code: issp_19bm

About the variable: Average reply to 19b: "How much do you agree or disagree with each of these statements? Poorer countries should be expected to make less effort than richer countries to protect the environment". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 19b. In Environment II (2000) - question 16b. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that fewer people think that poorer countries should do less than rich countries to protect the environment. A lower score means that more people think that poorer countries should do less than rich countries to protect the environment.

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Variable: Environment is most or next most important issue (%)
QoG code: issp_1ap

About the variable: Percent replying "The environment" to 1a: "Which of these issues is the most important for [COUNTRY] today?" plus percent replying "The environment" to 1b: "Which of these issues is the next most important for [COUNTRY] today?". The issues in the list include: (1) Health care, (2) Education, (3) Crime, (4) The environment, (5) Immigration, (6) The economy, (7) Terrorism, (8) Poverty, (9) None of these, (98) Can't choose. In Environment III (2010) - questions 1a and 1b. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. The higher the score the higher the percentage of the population that prioritizes the environment as the most or second most important issue. The lower the score the smaller the percentage of the population that prioritizes the environment as the most or second most important issue.

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Variable: Reported extent of recycling (mean)
QoG code: issp_20am

About the variable: Average reply to 20a: "How often do you make a special effort to sort glass or tins or plastic or newspapers and so on for recycling?". (1) Always, (2) Often, (3) Sometimes, (4) Never. Responses (8) Recycling not available where I live are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 20a. In Environment II (2000) - question 19a. In Environment I (1993) - question 19a. A higher score means that fewer people make an effort to recycle correctly. A lower score means that more people make an effort to recycle correctly.

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Variable: Recycling not available (%)
QoG code: issp_20ap

About the variable: Percent of replies (8) Recycling not available where I live to 20a: "How often do you make a special effort to sort glass or tins or plastic or newspapers and so on for recycling?". In Environment III (2010) - answer not included. In Environment II (2000) - question 19a. In Environment I (1993) - question 19a. A higher score means that more people have access to recycling facilities. A lower score means that fewer people have access to recycling facilities.

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Variable: Reducing energy use for the environment (mean)
QoG code: issp_20dm

About the variable: Average reply to 20d: "How often do you reduce the energy or fuel you use at home for environmental reasons?". (1) Always, (2) Often, (3) Sometimes, (4) Never. In Environment III (2010) - question 20d. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that fewer people make a special effort to reduce energy consumption for environmental reasons. A lower score means that more people make a special effort to reduce energy consumption for environmental reasons.

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Variable: Membership in environmental groups (%)
QoG code: issp_21p

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to 21: "Are you a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment?". In Environment III (2010) - question 21. In Environment II (2000) - question 20. In Environment I (1993) - question 20. A higher score means that more people are members of environmental groups. A lower score means that fewer people are members of environmental groups.

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Variable: Signed petitions about environmental issues (%)
QoG code: issp_22ap

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to 22a: "In the last five years, have you signed a petition about an environmental issue?". In Environment III (2010) - question 22a. In Environment II (2000) - question 21a. In Environment I (1993) - question 21a. A higher score means that more people signed petitions for environmental issues in the 2 years prior to the survey. A lower score means that fewer people signed petitions for environmental issues in the 2 years prior to the survey.

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Variable: Given money to an environmental group (%)
QoG code: issp_22bp

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to 22b: "In the last five years, have you given money to an environmental group (including NGOs and lobby groups)?". In Environment III (2010) - question 22b. In Environment II (2000) - question 21b. In Environment I (1993) - question 21b. A higher score means that more people gave money to environmental groups in the 5 years prior to the survey. A lower score means that fewer people gave money to environmental groups in the 5 years prior to the survey.

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Variable: Taken part in a protest/demonstration about environmental issues (%)
QoG code: issp_22cp

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to 22c: "In the last five years, have you taken part in a protest or demonstration about an environmental issue?". In Environment III (2010) - question 22c. In Environment II (2000) - question 21c. In Environment I (1993) - question 21c. A higher score means that more people participated in environmental protests in the 5 years prior to the survey. A lower score means that fewer people participated in environmental protests in the 5 years prior to the survey.

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Variable: Environmental concern (mean)
QoG code: issp_6m

About the variable: Average reply to the question: "Generally speaking, how concerned are you about environmental issues?". (1) Not at all concerned - (5) Very concerned. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 6. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that more people are concerned about environmental issues. A lower score means that fewer people are concerned about environmental issues.

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Variable: Knowledge about causes of environmental problems (mean)
QoG code: issp_8am

About the variable: Average reply to 8a: "How much do you feel you know about the causes of these sorts of environmental problems?". (1) Know nothing at all - (5) Know a great deal. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. "These sorts of environmental problems" refer to (1) Air pollution, (2) Chemicals and pesticides, (3) Water shortage, (4) Water pollution, (5) Nuclear waste, (6) Domestic waste disposal, (7) Climate change, (8) Genetically modified foods, (9) Using up our natural resources. In Environment III (2010) - question 8a. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that more people feel that they know about the causes of environmental problems. A lower score means that fewer people feel that they know about the causes of environmental problems.

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Variable: Knowledge about solutions to environmental problems (mean)
QoG code: issp_8bm

About the variable: Average reply to 8b: "And how much do you feel you know about solutions to these sorts of environmental problems?". (1) Know nothing at all - (5) Know a great deal. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 8b. In Environment II (2000) - question not part of the survey. In Environment I (1993) - question not part of the survey. A higher score means that more people feel that they know about the solutions to environmental problems. A lower score means that fewer people feel that they know about the solutions to environmental problems.

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Variable: Belief in science (mean)
QoG code: issp_9am

About the variable: Average reply to 9a: "How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? We believe too often in science, and not enough in feelings and faith". (1) Agree strongly, (2) Agree, (3) Neither agree nor disagree, (4) Disagree, (5) Disagree strongly. Replies (8) Can't choose are deleted. In Environment III (2010) - question 9a. In Environment II (2000) - question 3a. In Environment I (1993) - question 4a. A higher score means that there are fewer people who think that we believe in science too often and not enough in feelings and faith. A lower score means that there are more people who think that we believe in science too often and not enough in feelings and faith.

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Variable: Latitude
QoG code: lp_lat_abst

About the variable: Latitude: The absolute value of the latitude of the capital city, divided by 90 (to take values between 0 and 1).

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Variable: Natural Resource Protection Indicator
QoG code: nrmi_nrpi

About the variable: Natural Resource Protection Indicator assesses whether a country is protecting at least 17% of all of its biomes (e.g. deserts, forests, grasslands, aquatic, and tundra). It is designed to capture the comprehensiveness of a government's commitment to habitat preservation and biodiversity protection. The World Wildlife Fund provides the underlying biome data, and the United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Center provides the underlying data on protected areas.

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Variable: Percentage of desert in 2012
QoG code: nunn_desert

About the variable: The percentage of the land surface area of each country covered by sandy desert, dunes, rocky or lava flows, was calculated on the basis of the desert layer of the Collins Bartholomew World Premium digital map data (Collins Bartholomew, 2005) and the country boundaries described above. This was initially computed as a cruder measure of soil (in)fertility for an early draft of the paper and is no longer used in the final version. Nunn and Puga have left it in the dataset in case it is of use to other researchers.

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Variable: Average distance to nearest ice-free coast (1000 km) in 2012
QoG code: nunn_dist_coast

About the variable: Average distance to nearest ice-free coast (1000 km). To calculate the average distance to the closest ice-free coast in each country, Nunn and Puga first compute the distance to the nearest ice-free coast for every point in the country in equi-rectangular projection with standard parallels at 30 degrees, on the basis of sea and sea ice area features contained in the fifth edition of the Digital Chart of the World (US National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2000) and the country boundaries described above. Then Nunn and Puga average this distance across all land in each country not covered by inland water features. Units are thousands of kilometres.

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Variable: Percentage within 100 km. of ice-free coast in 2012
QoG code: nunn_near_coast

About the variable: Within 100 km of ice-free coast. On the basis of the same data used to calculate the average distance to nearest ice-free coast, Nunn and Puga calculate the percentage of the land surface area of each country that is within 100km of the nearest ice-free coast.

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Variable: Ruggedness (Terrain Ruggedness Index, 100 m) in 2012
QoG code: nunn_rugged

About the variable: This is the Terrain Ruggedness Index originally devised by Riley, DeGloria, and Elliot (1999) to quantify topographic heterogeneity in wildlife habitats providing concealment for preys and lookout posts.The source of elevation data is GTOPO30 (US Geological Survey, 1996), a global elevation data set developed through a collaborative international effort led by staff at the US Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS). Elevations in GTOPO30 are regularly spaced at 30 arc-seconds across the entire surface of the Earth on a map using a geographic projection, so the sea-level surface distance betNunn and Pugaen two adjacent grid points on a meridian is half a nautical mile or, equivalently, 926 metres. After calculating the Terrain Ruggedness Index for each point on the grid, Nunn and Puga average across all grid cells in the country not covered by water to obtain the average terrain ruggedness of the country's land area. Since the sea-level surface that corresponds to a 30 by 30 arcsecond cell varies in proportion to the cosine of its latitude, when calculating the average terrain ruggedness - or the average of any other variable - for each country, Nunn and Puga Nunn and Pugaigh each cell by its latitude-varying sea-level surface. Nunn and Puga assign land to countries - for this and other variables - using digital boundary data based on the fifth edition of the Digital Chart of the World (US National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2000), which Nunn and Puga have updated to reflect 2000 country boundaries using information from the International Organization for Standardization ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency and other sources. Nunn and Puga exclude areas covered by permanent inland water area features contained in the same edition of the Digital Chart of the World. The units for the terrain ruggedness index correspond to the units used to measure elevation differences. In our calculation, ruggedness is measured in hundreds of metres of elevation difference for grid points 30 arc-seconds (926 metres on the equator or any meridian) apart.

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Variable: Percentage of tropical climate in 2012
QoG code: nunn_tropical

About the variable: Tropical climate. Using detailed temperature and precipitation data from the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre of the German Nunn and Pugaather Service, Kottek, Grieser, Beck, Rudolf, and Rubel (2006) classify each cell on a 30 arc-minute grid covering the entire land area of the Earth into one of 31 climates in the widely-used Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Based on these data and the country boundaries described above, Nunn and Puga calculate the percentage of the land surface area of each country that has any of the four Köppen-Geiger tropical climates.

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Variable: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion
QoG code: oecd_airqty_t1

About the variable: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion

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Variable: Climate change related tax revenue (% of GDP)
QoG code: oecd_cctr_gdp

About the variable: Climate change-related tax revenue as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Includes taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems, subsidies, and voluntary approaches related to the domain of climate change.

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Variable: Climate change related tax revenue (% of total tax revenue)
QoG code: oecd_cctr_tot

About the variable: Climate change-related tax revenue as a percentage of total tax revenue. Includes taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems, subsidies, and voluntary approaches related to the domain of climate change.

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Variable: Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growth
QoG code: oecd_eampg

About the variable: EAMFP measures a country's ability to generate income from a given set of inputs, while accounting for the consumption of natural resources and production of undesirable environmental by-products. It corresponds to the share of pollution-adjusted output growth that is not explained by changes in the use of inputs (residual growth). EAMFP growth therefore measures the residual growth in the joint production of both the desirable and the undesirable outputs that cannot be explained by changes in the consumption of factor inputs (including labour, produced capital, and natural capital). Therefore, for a given growth of input use, EAMFP increases when GDP increases or when pollution decreases.

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Variable: Environmnnetal Protection Expenditure Accounts (EPEA)
QoG code: oecd_epea

About the variable: National environmental protection activities in terms of millions in national currency expenditure. This includes all activities with the main purpose of preventing, reducing, or eliminating pollution as well as any other form of environmental degradation. The EPEA aim to describe all national transactions related to environmental protection, with the purpose of constructing a measure of the national environmental protection expenditure which can be related to, for instance, gross domestic product, in order to assess the importance of these activities as a share of total production. The EPEA show which economic sectors contribute to environmental protection expenditure, both from the producers' side, as from the users' and the financing side. This data focuses on the production and uses of environmental protection services. Output of these services can be output of market, non-market, and ancillary activities. EPEA is directly linked to the three definitions of GDP: the production measure, the expenditure measure, and the income measure. EPEA covers (1) expenditure on environmental protection (EP) products by resident units; (2) expenditure related to the production of EP products, including the gross capital formation, and (3) transactions related to the financing of EP expenditure.

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Variable: Environmental Policy Stringency Index
QoG code: oecd_eps

About the variable: The index measures the degree to which environmental policies put an explicit or implicit price on polluting or environmentally harmful behaviour. The index ranges from 0 (not stringent) to 6 (highest degree of stringency) and is based on the degree of stringency of 14 environmental policy instruments, both market-based and non-market-based, primarily related to climate and air pollution. These policy instruments include environmental taxes on SOx, NOx, diesel, and CO2; trading schemes in CO2; renewable energy and energy efficiency certificates; feed-in tariffs on solar and wind energy; deposit and refund schemes; emission limit values on NOx, SOx, PMx and sulphur content limits in diesel, as well as government expenditure on research and development within renewable energy.

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Variable: Environmentally related tax revenue (% of GDP)
QoG code: oecd_etr_gdp

About the variable: Total revenue gathered from environmentally-related taxes, fees, charges, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems, environmentally motivated subsidies, and voluntary approaches used for environmental policy, as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The tax bases covered include: - Energy products (including vehicle fuels); - Motor vehicles and transport services; - Measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, as well as management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife, and fish stocks.

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Variable: Environmentally related tax revenue (% total tax revenue)
QoG code: oecd_etr_tot

About the variable: Total revenue gathered from environmentally-related taxes, fees, charges, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems, environmentally motivated subsidies, and voluntary approaches used for environmental policy, as a percentage of total tax revenue. The tax bases covered include: - Energy products (including vehicle fuels); - Motor vehicles and transport services; - Measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, as well as management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife, and fish stocks.

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Variable: Structure of central gov. expenditures, environmental protect.
QoG code: oecd_gengovdistri_t1e

About the variable: Structure of central government expenditures, environmental protection

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Variable: Greenhouse gas emissions
QoG code: oecd_greenhouse_t1

About the variable: Greenhouse gas emissions

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Variable: Percentage of population exposed to more than 15 μg/m3 of PM2.5
QoG code: oecd_pm25ex15p

About the variable: Percentage of population exposed to a fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration greater than 15 micrograms (μg) per cubic meter (m3). The World Health Organization (WHO) provides air quality guidelines based on scientific evidence and expert advice. 15 μg/m3 is interim target-3. In addition to other health benefits, these levels reduce the mortality risk by approximately 6% [2-11%] relative to the IT-2 level (25 μg/m3).

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Variable: Percentage of population exposed to more than 25 μg/m3 of PM2.5
QoG code: oecd_pm25ex25p

About the variable: Percentage of population exposed to a fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration greater than 25 micrograms (μg) per cubic meter (m3). WHO provides air quality guidelines based on scientific evidence and expert advice. 25 μg/m3 is interim target-2: In addition to other health benefits, these levels lower the risk of premature mortality by approximately 6% [2–11%] relative to the IT-1 level (35 μg/m3). Data on exposure to more than 35 μg/m3 is included in the Green Growth dataset.

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Variable: Pollution-adjusted GDP growth
QoG code: oecd_polagdpg

About the variable: Pollution-adjusted GDP growth measures to what extent a country's GDP growth should be corrected for pollution abatement efforts - adding what has been undervalued due to resources being diverted to pollution abatement, or deducing the "excess" growth which is generated at the expense of environmental quality.

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Variable: Sulphur Oxides Emissions
QoG code: oecd_soxnox_t1a

About the variable: Sulphur Oxides Emissions

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Variable: Nitrogene Oxides Emissions
QoG code: oecd_soxnox_t1b

About the variable: Nitrogene Oxides Emissions

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Variable: Total amount of municipal waste generated
QoG code: oecd_waste_t1b

About the variable: Total amount of municipal waste generated, measured in thousand tons.

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Variable: Fisheries management effectiveness and opportunity
QoG code: ohi_aoacc

About the variable: Fisheries management effectiveness and opportunity. The effectiveness of fisheries management in all countries with coastal areas is assessed by using a combination of surveys, empirical data, and enquiries to fisheries experts. They evaluated six aspects of each management regime: Scientific Robustness, Policy Transparency, Implementation Capacity, Subsidies, Fishing Effort, and Foreign Fishing, scoring each category from 0 to 100. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Mora, C., Myers, R.A., Coll, M., Libralato, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, R.U., Worm, B. (2009). Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries. PLoS Biol, 7(6), e1000131. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Ocean acidification
QoG code: ohi_caacid

About the variable: Ocean acidification. The Ocean acidification layer models the difference in global distribution changes in the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) between pre-industrial (~1870) and modern times (2000-2009) as a proxy for ocean acidification due to human influences. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Feely, R., Doney, S. & Cooley, S. (2009) Ocean acidification: present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22:36-47. and J. Afflerbach et al. (2015). https://github.com/OHI-Science/ohiprep/tree/master/globalprep/Pressures_OceanAcidification/v2015 When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Coastal human population as a proxy for trend in trash
QoG code: ohi_chp

About the variable: Coastal human population as a proxy for trend in trash. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: CIESIN & CIAT (Center for International Earth Science Information Network / Columbia University, & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) (2005). Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates. Palisades, NY. [NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC)]. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Sea level rise
QoG code: ohi_csslr

About the variable: Sea level rise. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Nicholls R. J. and Cazenave A. (2010). Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science 328: 1517-1520. and AVISO Satellite Altimetry Data. and J. Afflerbach et al. (2015). (https://github.com/OHI-Science/ohiprep/tree/master/globalprep/Pressures_SeaLevelRise/v2015) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies
QoG code: ohi_csst

About the variable: Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. SST of the ocean is indicated by measurements taken at depths that range from 1 millimeter to 20 meters. This measurement does not indicate absolute temperature at a location, but instead determines the number of positive temperature deviations (anomalies) that exceed the natural range of variation for a given location, i.e. the frequency with which a location experiences unnaturally warm temperature. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 SST data. and Casey, K. S., Brandon, T. B., Cornillon, P., and Evans, R. (2010). The past, present and future of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST Program, Oceanography from Space: Revisited, eds. V. Barale, J.F.R. Gower, and L. Alberotanza, Springer. and J. Afflerbach et al. (2015). (https://github.com/OHI-Science/ohiprep/tree/master/globalprep/Pressures_SST) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: UV radiation
QoG code: ohi_cuv

About the variable: UV radiation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the portion of solar radiation with wavelengths of 200-400 nanometers (nm). UV Radiation was measured as the number of times in each 1-degree cell that the monthly average exceeded the climatological mean +1 standard deviation. These values were summed across the 12 months to provide a single value, ranging from 0-19. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). and J. Afflerbach et al. (2015). (https://github.com/OHI-Science/ohiprep/tree/master/globalprep/Pressures_UV) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: High bycatch caused by artisanal fishing
QoG code: ohi_fah

About the variable: High bycatch caused by artisanal fishing. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Reefs at Risk Revisited (http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk-revisited). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: High bycatch caused by commercial fishing
QoG code: ohi_fchb

About the variable: High bycatch caused by commercial fishing. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 3199(5865): 948-952. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Low bycatch caused by commercial fishing
QoG code: ohi_fclb

About the variable: Low bycatch caused by commercial fishing. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 3199(5865): 948-952. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD survey: habitat
QoG code: ohi_hab

About the variable: CBD survey: habitat. A resilience measure based on questions 153(a,b,c,e,g) and 158(a,b,c,f,g,h) from The Convention on Biological Diversity country questionnaire (Third National Report to the CBD, from 2005). Question 153: Do your country's strategies and action plans include the following: a) Developing new marine and coastal protected areas; b) Improving the management of existing marine and coastal protected areas; c) Building capacity within the country for management of marine and coastal resources, including through educational programmes and targeted research initiatives; e) Protection of areas important for reproduction, such as spawning and nursery areas; g) Controlling excessive fishing and destructive fishing practices? Question 158: Which of the following statements can best describe the current status of marine and coastal protected areas in your country: a) Marine and coastal protected areas have been declared and gazetted; b) Management plans for these marine and coastal protected areas have been developed with involvement of all stakeholders; c) Effective management with enforcement and monitoring has been put in place; f) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas includes areas managed for purpose of sustainable use, which may allow extractive activities; g) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas includes areas which exclude extractive uses; h) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas is surrounded by sustainable management practices over the wider marine and coastal environment? For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD survey: coastal habitat
QoG code: ohi_habcom

About the variable: CBD survey: coastal habitat. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD survey: ocean habitat
QoG code: ohi_habeez

About the variable: CBD survey: ocean habitat. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Coastal population density as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction
QoG code: ohi_hdinter

About the variable: Coastal population density as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: CIESIN & CIAT (Center for International Earth Science Information Network /Columbia University & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) (2005). Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates. Palisades, NY. and NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and Halpern, B. S. et. al. (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 3199(5865): 948-952. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Bycatch by artisanal fishing - hard bottom habitat destruction
QoG code: ohi_hshb

About the variable: High bycatch artisanal fishing practices as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Reefs at Risk Revisited (http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk-revisited). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Demersal destructive fishing - soft bottom habitat destruction
QoG code: ohi_hssb

About the variable: Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices relative to soft-bottom habitat area as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Sea Around Us Project (http://www.seaaroundus.org/) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Coastal protected areas inland 1km
QoG code: ohi_lpai

About the variable: Coastal protected areas inland 1km. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: United Nations - World Conservation Monitoring Centre's World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) through [Protected Planet (http://www.protectedplanet.net)]. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Coastal marine protected areas offshore 3km
QoG code: ohi_lpao

About the variable: Coastal marine protected areas offshore 3km. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: United Nations - World Conservation Monitoring Centre's World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) through [Protected Planet (http://www.protectedplanet.net)]. When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD Survey: Mariculture
QoG code: ohi_maricul

About the variable: CBD Survey: Mariculture. A resilience measure based on questions 158(d) and 159(a-l) from The Convention on Biological Diversity country questionnaire (Third National Report to the CBD, from 2005). Question 158: Which of the following statements can best describe the current status of marine and coastal protected areas in your country: d) A national system or network of marine and coastal protected areas is under development? Question 159: Is your country applying the following techniques aimed at minimizing adverse impacts of mariculture on marine and coastal biodiversity? a) Application of environmental impact assessments for mariculture developments; b) Development and application of effective site selection methods in the framework of integrated marine and coastal area management; c) development of effective methods for effluent and waste control; d) Development of appropriate genetic resource management plans at the hatchery level; e) Development of controlled hatchery and genetically sound reproduction methods in order to avoid seed collection from nature; f) If seed collection from nature cannot be avoided, development of environmentally sound practices for spat collecting operations, including use of selective fishing gear to avoid by-catch; g) Use of native species and subspecies in mariculture; h) Implementation of effective measures to prevent the inadvertent release of mariculture species and fertile polypoids; i) Use of proper methods of breeding and proper places of releasing in order to protect genetic diversity; j) Minimizing the use of antibiotics through better husbandry techniques; k) Use of selective methods in commercial fishing to avoid or minimize bycatch; l) Considering traditional knowledge, where applicable, as a source to develop sustainable mariculture techniques. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml)- When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Areas of observed blast (dynamite) fishing
QoG code: ohi_npblast

About the variable: Areas of observed blast (dynamite) fishing. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Reefs at Risk Revisited (http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk-revisited) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Areas of observed poison fishing
QoG code: ohi_npcyan

About the variable: Areas of observed poison fishing. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Reefs at Risk Revisited (http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk-revisited) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: The Ocean Health Index
QoG code: ohi_ohi

About the variable: The Ocean Health Index establishes reference points for achieving ten widely accepted socio-ecological objectives and scores the oceans adjacent to 171 countries and territories on how successfully they deliver these goals. Evaluated globally and by country, these ten public goals represent the wide range of benefits that a healthy ocean can provide; each country's overall score is the average of its respective goal scores. The ten socio-ecological objectives are: Food Provision, Artisanal Fishing Opportunities, Natural Products, Carbon Storage, Coastal Protection, Coastal Livelihoods \& Economies, Tourism \& Recreation, Sense of Place, Clean Waters, Biodiversity. The index varies from 0 to 100.

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Variable: Coastal chemical pollution within 3 nm offshore
QoG code: ohi_pc3

About the variable: Coastal chemical pollution within 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean. Nature Communications 6(7615). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources. and FAO's statistical database FAOSTAT (http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/browse/R/*/E). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Chemical pollution
QoG code: ohi_pchem

About the variable: Chemical pollution is measured as the average of land-based organic pollution, land-based inorganic pollution, and ocean-based pollution from commercial shipping and port as proxies. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean. Nature Communications 6(7615). and FAO's statistical database FAOSTAT (http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/browse/R/*/E). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Coastal fertilizer pollution
QoG code: ohi_pn3

About the variable: Coastal fertilizer pollution as a proxy for nutrient pollution within 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean. Nature Communications 6(7615). and FAO's statistical database FAOSTAT (http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/browse/R/*/E). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Fertilizer pollution as a proxy for nutrient pollution
QoG code: ohi_pnutrient

About the variable: Fertilizer pollution as a proxy for nutrient pollution. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Halpern, B. S. et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean. Nature Communications 6(7615). and FAO's statistical database FAOSTAT (http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/browse/R/*/E). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Trash pollution
QoG code: ohi_ptrash

About the variable: Trash pollution. Estimated by the tons of litter per km of beach collected during beach cleanups organized by the Ocean Conservancy’s Trash Free Seas Alliance in 96 countries and locations. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Eriksen M., Lebreton, L. C. M., Carson, H. S., Thiel, M., Moore, C. J. and Borerro, J. C. (2014). Plastic pollution in the world's oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS ONE 9:e111913. and J. Afflerbach et al. (2015). [Methods](https://github.com/OHI Science/ohiprep/tree/master/globalprep/CW_pressure_trash) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original sources.

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Variable: Alien Species
QoG code: ohi_saali

About the variable: Alien species are non-indigenous organisms introduced into an ecosystem that is not their native habitat either by accident or intentionally. Measured by total counts of all invasive species according to data from the Global Invasive Species Database (GIRD). For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Molnar, J. L., Gamboa, R. L., Revenga C., Spalding, M. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(485). When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Percent direct employment in tourism
QoG code: ohi_tjpt

About the variable: Percent direct employment in tourism. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: World Travel and Tourism Council, WTTC (http://www.wttc.org/research/economic-data-search-tool/) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD Survey: Tourism
QoG code: ohi_tour

About the variable: CBD Survey: Tourism. A resilience measure based on questions 79, 80, and 82 from The Convention on Biological Diversity country questionnaire (Third National Report to the CBD, from 2005). Question 79: Has your country established mechanisms to assess, monitor and measure the impact of tourism on biodiversity? a) No; b) No, but mechanisms are under development; c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please specify below); d) Yes, existing mechanisms are under review. Question 80: Has your country provided educational and training programmes to the tourism operators so as to increase their awareness of the impacts of tourism on biodiversity and upgrade the technical capacity at the local level to minimize the impacts? a) No; b) No, but programmes are under development; c) Yes, programmes are in place (please describe below). Question 82: Does your country provide indigenous and local communities with capacity-building and financial resources to support their participation in tourism policy-making, development planning, product development and management? a) No; b) No, but relevant programmes are being considered; c) Yes, some programmes are in place; d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are in place. For more details on the variable construction, see the original sources: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Sustainability index
QoG code: ohi_trsust

About the variable: Sustainability index. For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: World Economic Forum (http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-competitiveness) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: CBD Survey: Water
QoG code: ohi_water

About the variable: CBD Survey: water. A resilience measure based on question 153(d,f) from The Convention on Biological Diversity country questionnaire (Third National Report to the CBD, from 2005). Question 153(d,f): Do your country's strategies and action plans include the following: d) Instituting improved integrated marine and coastal area management (including catchments management) in order to reduce sediment and nutrient loads into the marine environment; f) Improving sewage and other waste treatment? For more details on the variable construction, see the original source: Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD (http://www.cbd.int/reports/search/default.shtml) When using this variable, please cite both the OHI project and the original source.

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Variable: Environmental Policy Performance Index
QoG code: sgi_en

About the variable: The index consists of two parts: Environment Index and Global Environmental Protection Index, weighted equally. The variable varies between 0 and 10.

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Variable: Environmental Policy Performance - Environment
QoG code: sgi_enen

About the variable: The Environment index consists of the "Environmental Policy" indicator (50%), based on expert assessments of environmental policy effectiveness, and nine indicators related to observable environmental performance, including Energy Productivity (5,56%), Greenhouse Gas Emissions (5,56%), Particulate Matter (5,56%), Biocapacity (5,56%), Waste Generation (5,56%), Material Recycling (5,56%), Biodiversity (5,56%), Renewable Energy (5,56%), and Material footprint (5,56%). The index varies from 0 to 10.

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Variable: Environmental Policy Performance - Global Environmental Protection
QoG code: sgi_enge

About the variable: The Global Environmental Protection index consists of "Global Environmental Policy Indicator" (50%), based on expert assessments of countries' participation in global environmental protection regimes, the rate of participation in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (25%), and Kyoto Participation and Achievements indicator, measuring to what extent the Kyoto emission reduction targets were met (25%). The index varies from 0 to 10.

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Variable: Environmental policy effectiveness
QoG code: sgi_epe

About the variable: The indicator measures how effectively a national environmental policy protects and preserves the sustainability of natural resources and the quality of the environment. Effective environmental policies will help promote and incentivize goal-driven technological progress and environmentally friendly behavior and ensure sufficient resources are allocated for implementation. In assessing the effectiveness of environmental policies, the experts were invited to draw on the following guiding questions: 1. Are environmental policy goals ambitious (i.e., do they target more than improvements to efficiency)? 2. Are environmental policies implemented with tangible impact? 3. Are environmental concerns integrated effectively across relevant policy sectors (i.e., energy, housing, transport, manufacturing industry, research and innovation, tourism, fisheries, agriculture)? As environmental performance may be issue-specific, the experts were invited to provide a short paragraph for each of the four key targets of protection: resource use (land, water, materials, energy), environmental pollution (water, air, soil), climate and biodiversity protection." The indicator is based on expert answers to these questions and varies from 0 to 10, where 0-1 is "Environmental concerns have been largely abandoned" and 9-10 is "Environmental policy goals are ambitious and effectively implemented as well as monitored within and across most relevant policy sectors that account for the largest share of resource use and emissions".

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Variable: Participation in global environmental regimes
QoG code: sgi_ger

About the variable: The indicator measures the extent to which governments actively contribute to the design and advancement of global environmental protection regimes. Protecting the climate and preserving natural resources worldwide depends on effective collective action carried out on a global level. Examples of active contribution include demonstrating initiative and responsibility, acting as an agenda-setter within international frameworks, and/or achieving an alignment of purpose among conflicting interests in international negotiations. The experts were invited to provide a paragraph addressing the following three aspects: 1. Which issues are treated as global common goods rather than domestic environmental problems (e.g., chemical pollution, biodiversity conservation, forest protection, climate protection, etc.)? 2. Which of these global issues or goals does the government address, and has it formulated and implemented action plans targeting these goals? 3. Are countries targeting the preservation of global common goods by contributing funds either through international facilities or official development assistance?" The indicator is based on the expert answers to these questions and varies from 0 to 10, where 1-2 is "The government does not contribute to international efforts to strengthen global environmental protection regimes," and 9-10 is "The government actively contributes to international efforts to design and advance global environmental protection regimes. In most cases, it demonstrates commitment to existing regimes, contributes to their being advanced and has introduced appropriate reforms".

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Variable: Minimum Atlantic distance (1,000 of kms)
QoG code: slavet_mindistatl

About the variable: Shortest sailing distances to the locations of demand in the trans-Atlantic slave trades.

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Variable: Minimum Indian distance (1,000 of kms)
QoG code: slavet_mindistind

About the variable: Shortest sailing distances to the locations of demand in the Indian Ocean slave trades.

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Variable: Minimum Red Sea distance (1,000 of kms)
QoG code: slavet_mindistred

About the variable: Shortest overland distances to the locations of demand in the Red Sea slave trades.

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Variable: Minimum Saharan distance (1,000 of kms)
QoG code: slavet_mindistsah

About the variable: Shortest overland distances to the locations of demand in the trans-Saharan slave trades.

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Variable: Stock of executive orders/policies on mitigation for the past 3 years
QoG code: slaws_mit_ex_l3

About the variable: Number of policies addressing climate mitigation that were enacted by the national executive branch for the previous 3 years, rolling. These include presidential decrees, executive orders, or department regulations.

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Variable: Stock of older executive orders/policies on mitigation
QoG code: slaws_mit_ex_lt

About the variable: Number of policies addressing climate mitigation that were enacted by the national executive branch until three years back, rolling. These policies include presidential decrees, executive orders, or department regulations.

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Variable: Stock of mitigation laws and policies for the past 3 years
QoG code: slaws_mit_l3

About the variable: Number of laws and policies addressing climate mitigation that were adopted by the national government in the previous 3 years, rolling.

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Variable: Stock of legislative mitigation laws for the past 3 years
QoG code: slaws_mit_leg_l3

About the variable: Number of laws addressing climate mitigation that were passed by the national legislature in the previous three years, rolling. Laws are passed by the parliament, congress, or equivalent legislative authority.

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Variable: Stock of older legislative mitigation laws
QoG code: slaws_mit_leg_lt

About the variable: Total number of laws addressing climate mitigation that were passed by the national legislature until three years back, rolling. Laws are passed by the parliament, congress, or equivalent legislative authority.

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Variable: Stock of older mitigation laws and policies
QoG code: slaws_mit_lt

About the variable: Total number of laws and policies addressing climate mitigation that were adopted by the national government until three years back, rolling.

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Variable: Environmental parties: share of seats
QoG code: vparty_envseat

About the variable: The variable measures the share of seats in the lower chamber taken by the parties, for which environmental protection is relevant to gain and keep voters, as agreed on by at least half of the coders in the V-Party dataset. The original variable from V-Party dataset - v2pasalie - measures the share of coders who answered "12: Environmental protection" to the multiple-choice question "Which of the following issues are most relevant for the party's effort to gain and keep voters?". We only keep parties that score 0.5 or higher on variable v2pasalie_12 and then calculate their share of seats in a given country-year using v2paseatshare variable - Seat share the party gained in the election to the lower chamber.

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Variable: Environmental parties: share of votes
QoG code: vparty_envvote

About the variable: The variable measures the share of votes to the lower chamber received by the parties, for which environmental protection is relevant to gain and keep voters, as agreed on by at least half of the coders in the V-Party dataset. The original variable from V-Party dataset - v2pasalie - reports the share of coders who answered "12: Environmental protection" to the multiple-choice question "Which of the following issues are most relevant for the party's effort to gain and keep voters?". We only keep parties that score 0.5 or higher on variable v2pasalie_12 and then calculate their share of votes in a given country-year using v2pavote variable - Vote share the party gained in the election to the lower chamber.

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Variable: Agricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land)
QoG code: wdi_agrland

About the variable: Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

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Variable: Arable land (% of land area)
QoG code: wdi_araland

About the variable: Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.

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Variable: Land area (sq. km)
QoG code: wdi_area

About the variable: Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.

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Variable: Land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area)
QoG code: wdi_areabelow

About the variable: Land area below 5m is the percentage of total land where the elevation is 5 meters or less.

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Variable: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
QoG code: wdi_co2

About the variable: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stem from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

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Variable: Forest area (% of land area)
QoG code: wdi_forest

About the variable: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

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Variable: Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)
QoG code: wdi_fossil

About the variable: Fossil fuel energy consumption as a percentage of total energy consumption. Fossil fuel comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.

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Variable: Internally displaced persons, new displacement-disasters (number)
QoG code: wdi_idpdis

About the variable: Internally displaced persons, new displacement associated with disasters (number of people). Internally displaced persons are defined according to the 1998 Guiding Principles (http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/1998/ocha-guiding-principles-on-internal-displacement) as people or groups of people who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of armed conflict, or to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, or natural or human-made disasters and who have not crossed an international border. ``New Displacement'' refers to the number of new cases or incidents of displacement recorded, rather than the number of people displaced. This is done because people may have been displaced more than once.

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Variable: Policy and institutions for environmental sustainability
QoG code: wdi_piesr

About the variable: Policy and institutions for environmental sustainability measures the extent to which environmental policies foster the protection and sustainable use of natural resources and the management of pollution. The indicator ranges from 1 (low) to 6 (high).

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Variable: Average precipitation in depth (mm per year)
QoG code: wdi_precip

About the variable: Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country in millimeters (mm). Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.

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Variable: Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area)
QoG code: wdi_tpa

About the variable: Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use. Marine areas, unclassified areas, littoral (intertidal) areas, and sites protected under local or provincial law are excluded. World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) where the compilation and management is carried out by United Nations Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) in collaboration with governments, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry. The data are available online through the Protected Planet website (https://www.protectedplanet.net/).

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Variable: Cool Water Index
QoG code: wel_cwi

About the variable: Meaning: The indicator measures the prevalence of relatively cool temperatures in each season combined with abundant fresh water resources throughout the year, on a country's historically most populated areas. Source: Index construction based on geo-climate data from the Harvard Geography Project, as documented in the appendix to Welzel's (2013) Freedom Rising, online at www.cambirdge.org/welzel, pp. 105-112. Scaling: Scores range from 0 for the hottest and driest countries to 1 for countries combining highly consistent precipitation with cold temperatures.

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Variable: Active memberships in environmental organizations (%)
QoG code: wvs_ameop

About the variable: Percent of respondents mentioning they are active members in an environmental organization in the question: "Now I am going to read out a list of voluntary organizations; for each one, could you tell me whether you are a member, an active member, an inactive member, or not a member of that type of organization?". A higher score means that more people are active members of environmental organizations. A lower score means that fewer people are active members of environmental organizations.

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Variable: Confidence in environmental organizations (mean)
QoG code: wvs_ceom

About the variable: Average reply to the question: "I am going to name a number of organizations. For each one, could you tell me how much confidence you have in them: is it a great deal of confidence, quite a lot of confidence, not very much confidence, or none at all? - Environmental organizations": 1) A great deal; 2) Quite a lot; 3) Not very much; 4) None at all. Answers "Don't know" and "No answer" are deleted. The higher the score, the lower the confidence in environmental organizations.

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Variable: Confidence: The Environmental Protection Movement (mean)
QoG code: wvs_confenv

About the variable: An average reply to the question "I am going to name a number of organizations. For each one, could you tell me how much confidence you have in them: The Environmental Protection Movement 1. None at all 2. Not very much 3. Quite a lot 4. A great deal "

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Variable: Donations to ecological organizations (%)
QoG code: wvs_deop

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to the question: "During the past two years, have you given money to an ecological organization?". A higher score means that more people have donated money to environmental organizations. A lower score means that fewer people have donated money to environmental organizations.

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Variable: Government should reduce environmental pollution
QoG code: wvs_envgov

About the variable: Government should reduce environmental pollution

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Variable: Would give part of my income for the environment
QoG code: wvs_envinc

About the variable: Would give part of my income for the environment

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Variable: Increase in taxes if used to prevent environmental pollution
QoG code: wvs_envtax

About the variable: Increase in taxes if used to prevent environmental pollution

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Variable: Protecting environment vs economic growth (%)
QoG code: wvs_epmip

About the variable: Percent of replies mentioning "Protecting the environment should be given priority" to the question: "Here are two statements people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of them comes closer to your own point of view? A. Protecting the environment should be given priority, even if it causes slower economic growth and some loss of jobs B. Economic growth and creating jobs should be the top priority, even if the environment suffers to some extent". A higher score means that more people prioritize the environment over economic growth and jobs. A lower score means that more people prioritize economic growth and jobs over the environment.

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Variable: Environment is the most serious problem (%)
QoG code: wvs_epmpp

About the variable: Percent of replies mentioning "Environmental pollution" to the question: "I'm going to read out some problems. Please indicate which of the following problems you consider the most serious one for the world as a whole?". A higher score means that more people prioritize the environment over other serious world problems. A lower score means that fewer people prioritize the environment over other serious world problems.

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Variable: Inactive memberships in environmental organizations (%)
QoG code: wvs_imeop

About the variable: Percent of respondents mentioning they are inactive members in an environmental organization in the question: "Now I am going to read out a list of voluntary organizations; for each one, could you tell me whether you are a member, an active member, an inactive member, or not a member of that type of organization?". A higher score means that there are more inactive members in environmental organizations among the general population. A lower score implies that there are fewer inactive members in environmental organizations among the general population.

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Variable: Participation in environmental protests (%)
QoG code: wvs_pedp

About the variable: Percent of "yes"-replies to the question: "During the past two years, have you participated in a demonstration for some environmental cause?". A higher score means that there are more people who have participated in environmental protests. A lower score means that there are fewer people who have participated in environmental protests.

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Variable: Important to look after the environment (mean)
QoG code: wvs_ploem

About the variable: Average reply to the question: "Now I will briefly describe some people. Using this card, would you please indicate for each description whether that person is very much like you, like you, somewhat like you, not like you, or not at all like you? - Looking after the environment is important to this person; to care for nature and save life resources": 1) Very much like me; 2) Like me; 3) Somewhat like me; 4) A little like me; 5) Not like me; 6) Not at all like me. Answers "Don't know" and "No answer" are deleted. A higher score means that fewer people believe that it is important to look after the environment. A lower score means that more people believe that it is important to look after the environment.

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